Student Module_2-1_Food_Package_Labels

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Transcript Student Module_2-1_Food_Package_Labels

Food Package Labels
Module 2.1
Two Prominent Government Agencies
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
– has jurisdiction over 80% of the food supply, including
seafood, dairy and produce. The FDA is responsible for
protecting and promoting public health through the regulation
and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary
supplements, prescription and over-the-counter medicine,
vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical
devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices
(ERED), and veterinary products.
– The FDA also enforces other
laws, including sanitation
requirements on interstate
travel and control of disease
on products ranging from
certain household pets to
sperm donation for assisted
Two Prominent Government Agencies
United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA), aka the
Agriculture Department,
• Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) a division of the
USDA, has jurisdiction over the remaining 20% of the food
supply comprised of meat, poultry and processed egg
• USDA ensures the nation's commercial supply of meat
(EXCLUDING game meats, such as venison), poultry, and
egg products is safe, wholesome, and correctly labeled and
Legislation Overview
• 1990: Nutrition Labeling and Education Act
• 1994: >300,000 packaged foods relabeled. Mandatory
compliance was required by food manufacturers.
• Package Size: Packages smaller than 12 square inches
in surface area require a phone number.
• Serving Size: The FDA established set serving sizes for
>100 food categories making product comparison easier.
• 2003: Legislation passed for trans fatty acids to appear
on a separate line under SFAs in the nutrition facts panel
starting January 1, 2006.
• 2004: The Food Allergen Labeling & Consumer Protection
Act of 2004 passed. Manufacturers must plainly list milk,
eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat,
and soybeans ingredients starting January 1, 2006.
Other legislation is described in table 2.1
The new
label will be
required to
be in place
by July 26,
New Food Label
• Serving sizes The serving sizes now reflect what people currently eat/
Serving sizes that were equivalent to only a few chips might now reflect the
whole package. There concern that people will take the serving sizes —
as recommendations rather than descriptions..
• Calories. The total count is now highlighted in huge letters. This change,
FDA officials have said, reflects the country’s growing obesity epidemic.
• Added sugars. This completely new category. Added sugars are
measured in both grams and as a percent daily value. This change will allow
consumers to tell the difference between sugars added during processing
versus sugars that come naturally, such as in fresh fruits and dairy.
• Multi-serving products. There will now be two columns to indicate the perserving and per-package calorie and nutrition information
• Odd-sized packages. Packages /containers that are between one and two
servings - such as 20-ounce bottles of sodas -will be labeled as one serving.
• Sodium and dietary fiber. % DV for sodium, dietary fiber and vitamin D will
change for many foods based on the new 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for
Americans and Institute of Medicine recommendations.
• Vitamin D and potassium. Will show % DV and the gram amount. Vitamins
A and C. Will no longer be required; since deficiencies are rare.
• Fat. Research indicates the type of fat is more important than the amount,
the “Calories from Fat” will disappear. However, “Total Fat,” and the
subcategories “Saturated Fat,” and “Trans Fat” will still be required.
• Percent Daily Value. Explanation continues to appear at the bottom of the
label and is still based on a 2,000 calorie diet, but it is more streamlined.
Legislative Overview
•The Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) enforces the law for foods sold in
the United States
•FDA has finalized two rules requiring that
calorie information be listed on
1.menus and menu boards in chain
restaurants and similar
2.retail food establishments and vending
•The law ensures that food companies
provide nutrition information in a standard
– Ingredients list
– Nutrition Facts panel
– Quantity
– Manufacture contact
– Name of product
Anatomy of a food package label
Daily Reference Values
• Daily Reference Values (DRV) used exclusively on Food labels.
– based on a 2000 Calorie diet - adults and children 4 yrs or older.
– % of Calories from simple sugar, saturated fatty Aaids, protein
etc. can be determined as follows:
• Grams x Kcal/per gm ÷ total Kcal x 100 = % Kcal
Ex: 7g CHO x 4g = 28 / 120 total kcal = .23 x 100 = 23%
• Applicable to Fat (29% = 585/2000 of Calories or 65 g x 9 = 585)
– Saturated Fat (9% = 180/2000 of Calories or 20 g x 9 = 180 kcal)
– Total fat sum grams of all the type of fatty acids found in the
food. Only indicate gram amounts of SFA & TFA.
• Cholesterol (300 mg)
• Carbohydrate (60% of Calories or 300 g)
• Fiber (12.5 gm/1000 Calories or 25 g)
– Total carbohydrate is the sum grams of simple and complex
carbohydrate. Manufacturers only show component gram
amounts of sugars & fiber (which is non-caloric).
• Protein (12% Kcal or 50 g high quality Pro, 65 gm low quality Pro)
• Sodium (Na; < 2400 mg) Potassium (K; 3500 mg)
Classifying Foods by Fat Content
• High-fat: >35% of Calories come from fat.
• Moderately-fat: 25-35% of Calories come from fat.
• Low-fat: <25% of Calories come from fat.
Calculating % Fat by Calories
Calories from Fat (g x 9)
÷ TOTAL Calories by calories from fat
Multiply x 100 = % calories from Fat
Calculating % Fat by Weight
Grams from Fat
÷ total Grams in a servings X 100
= Percent Fat by Weight
Nutrition Facts
Serving size 1/3 cup in shells (41 g)
Servings per container about 5
Amount per serving
Calories 150 Calories from Fat 100
% Daily value
% Fat by Calories
12g fat x 9 = 108 kcal
108 kcal / 150 kcal = 72%
• 72% of the calories of this
product came from fat
Total Fat 12 g
Saturated Fat 1.5 g
Trans Fatty Acids 0 g
Cholesterol 0 mg
Sodium 380 mg
Total Carbohydrate 5 g
Dietary Fiber 2 g
Sugars 1 g
Protein 6 g
• Vitamin A 0%
• Calcium 0%
• Vitamin C 0%
• Iron 4%
Nutrition Facts
Serving size 1 patty (112 g)
Servings per Container 12
Amount per serving
Calories 240 Calories from Fat 150
% Daily value
17g fat / 112g = 15%
22g/ pro / 112g = 20%
Total Fat 17 g
Saturated Fat 7 g
Trans Fatty Acids 0 g
Cholesterol 75 mg
Sodium 75 mg
Total Carbohydrate 0 g
Dietary Fiber 0 g
Sugars 0 g
Protein 22 g
• Vitamin A 0%
• Calcium 0%
• Vitamin C 0%
• Iron 10%
Whole Milk Example
Total 244 g/cup (weight of one cup of milk)
8 g Fat X 9 Calories/gram = 72 Kcal
9 g Protein X 4 Calories/gram = 36 Kcal
12 g Carbs X 4 Calories/gram = 48 Kcal
– Amount of total Calories
• 72+36+48 = 156 Calories
– Amount of fat based on weight
• 8 g ÷ 244 g x 100 = 3.3%
– Amount of fat based on Calories
• 72 Kcal ÷ 156 Kcal x 100 = 46%
Classification: whole milk is a high calorie food.
Energy Producing Nutrients
Corn Taco shell Ex: :Total Calories 110, protein 2 g.
• % Calories from Protein:
2g x 4 kcal/gm ÷ 110kcal x 100 = ?%
Raspberry Jam example: Total Calories 60, total CHO 11 g
Sugars 9 g.
• % Calories from CHO:
11g x 4 kcal/gm ÷ 60 x 100 = ?%
• % Calories from Sugars:
9g x 4 Cal/gm ÷ 60 x 100 = ?%
Energy Producing Nutrients
Corn Taco shell example: Total Calories 110, protein 2g.
• % Calories from Protein: 2g x 4 kcal/gm ÷ 110kcal x 100 = 7.3%
(2g x 4kcal = 8kcal 8/110 = 0.072 x 100 = 7.2%)
Raspberry Jam example: Total Calories 60, total CHO grams 11,
Sugars grams 9.
• % Calories from CHO: 11g x 4 kcal/gm ÷ 60kcal x 100 = 73%
• % Calories from Sugars: 9g x 4 kcal/gm ÷ 60kcal x 100 = 60%
Applying Knowledge
1. Is the protein in the ____ an example HBV or LBV? High or low
biological value
– Hamburger
– Corn Taco Shells
– Peanuts
– Cereal
2. Is the majority of carbohydrate in the _____simple or complex?
– Corn Taco Shells
– Peanuts
– Raspberry Jam
– Whole Milk
– Cereal
3. What kind of fatty acids are in the ________?
– Peanuts
– Whole Milk
– Hamburger
Reference Daily Intakes (RDI’s)
• The Reference Daily Intake or Recommended Daily Intake
(RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to
be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of HEALTHY
individuals in every demographic in the US
• The RDI is based on the older Recommended Dietary
Allowance (RDA) from 1968; newer RDAs have since been
introduced in the Dietary Reference Intake system, but the RDI
is still used for nutrition labeling.
– The RDI is used to determine the Daily Value (DV) of foods,
which is printed on nutrition facts labels
– Are set for vitamins & minerals essential in human nutrition.
• Are mandatory on every food package label for Vitamin C,
Vitamin A, Calcium and Iron.
• Are expressed as percentages (of recommendations)
• The value of RDA/RDIs is disputed among nutritionists.
• Standards of nutrient intake are not uniform worldwide.
Daily Value
• Daily Value (DV), is selected for the labels of dietary
supplements and foods. A DV is often, but not always, similar
to one's RDA or AI for that nutrient.
• DVs were developed by the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) to help consumers determine the level of
various nutrients in a standard serving of food in relation to
their approximate requirement for it.
• The label actually provides the %DV so that you can see how
much (what percentage) a serving of the product contributes
to reaching the DV.
The RDI’s
Pantothenic Acid
Vitamin B6
Vitamin B12
Vitamin C
Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin E
Vitamin K
International Units
g (gram), mg (milligram), µg (microgram)
Nutrient Density
• Nutrient Dense Foods: A food is
nutrient dense if it provides at least 20%
of the RDI for a nutrient per serving.
• Nutrient Density: The amount of
nutrient in reference to the Calories or
serving of food.
Nutrient Density:
Cereal Example
What does 25% Vitamin C
RDI for Vitamin C is 60 mg
Vitamin C accounts for 25% of
this food product. How much
Vitamin C is in one serving:
60 mg x 25 ÷ 100 =
15 mg Vitamin C per
1/4th daily needs met by
this product.
Ingredients List
INGREDIENTS: Whole oats, milled corn,
enriched wheat flour, dextrose, maltose, highfructose corn syrup, brown sugar, coconut oil,
walnuts, salt, natural flavors, sodium
ascorbate, vitamin A palmitate, and iron.
Ingredients are listed in order of quantity, but that doesn’t
always tell the whole story. For example, if a jar of salsa lists
tomatoes first, you know there are more tomatoes in the
product than anything else
Ingredients by different names
There’s salt, sodium benzoate, disodium or monosodium glutamate
(MSG). Sodium nitrite is in hot dogs, lunch meats etc. Legitimately
used to preserve fish, meats and control bacteria but contributes to
total salt intake. Too much sodium increase risk for heart disease
and stroke. American Heart Association recommends no more
than 1,500 milligrams of sodium a day, but average American
consumes TWICE that.
Trans fats
You won’t find these listed as trans fats at all, but rather ingredients
that contain trans fats: mainly partially hydrogenated oil and
hydrogenated oil. Trans fats can elevate your risk of developing
heart disease and stroke. These fats raise your bad cholesterol
(LDL) and decrease your good cholesterol (HDL). Learn about the
fats that affect your cholesterol levels
Ingredients by different names
Sugar anyone?
• Anhydrous dextrose, brown sugar, cane crystals, cane sugar, corn
sweetener, corn syrup, corn syrup solids, crystal dextrose,
evaporated cane juice, fructose sweetener, fruit juice concentrates,
high-fructose corn syrup, honey, liquid fructose, malt syrup, maple
syrup, molasses, pancake syrup, raw sugar, sugar, syrup and white
• Fructose is sugar derived from fruit and vegetables; lactose is milk
sugar; and maltose is sugar that comes from grain.
• Less common names: carbitol, concentrated fruit juice, corn
sweetener, diglycerides, disaccharides, evaporated cane juice,
erythritol, Florida crystals, fructooligosaccharides, galactose,
glucitol, glucoamine, hexitol, inversol, isomalt, maltodextrin, malted
barley, malts, mannitol, nectars, pentose, raisin syrup, ribose rice
syrup, rice malt, rice syrup solids, sorbitol, sorghum, sucanat,
sucanet, xylitol and zylose.
Food Labels
• Fortified food: a food where 10% or more of the Daily
Value has been added for a particular nutrient.
• Nutrient content claims
Food label indicating “low-fat”, “light”, “low-calorie,”
reduced, lean, and/or “free” related to
specific nutrition state
• Health claim
Food label linking the nutritional state of a
food to a reduced risk of a particular disease.
• Dietary Supplement Labels
• Free: Negligible amounts of fat, cholesterol, sodium, sugar, or
Calories. <0.5 grams of TFAs per serving.
• Reduced or Less: 25% less of a nutrient compared to the
original product.
• Light or Lite: 1/3 fewer Calories; 1/2 the fat or sodium; color
or texture (compared to the original product).
• Low:
– Sodium (≤140 mg per serving)
– Cholesterol (≤20 mg per serving)
– Calorie (≤40 Calories per serving)
– Fat (≤3 g fat per 3.5 ounce serving)
• Lean: ≤10 g fat; ≤4.5 g SFA & TFA; ≤95 mg cholesterol per 3.5
ounce serving
• Extra lean: ≤5 g fat; ≤2 g SFA & TFA; ≤95 mg cholesterol per
3.5 ounce serving
» 3.5 ounces = 100 grams
Health Claims
• A statement linking the nutrition profile of the food to a
reduced risk of a particular disease.
• To make a claim that a food supplies a good source of a
nutrient, usually the food must provide at least 20% of the
• Careful phrasing is required.
• For example, if a product provides a good source of calcium
[at least 20% of the RDI for calcium (200 mg)] per serving,
then the health claim “this product may prevent
osteoporosis” can be legally used.
• The company must also mention that other factors like
exercise may prevent osteoporosis.
FDA Approved Health Claims
Calcium - Osteoporosis
Low Fat - Cancer
SFA and TFA, cholesterol - heart disease
Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains containing fiber cancer
and heart disease
5. Fruits and vegetables (Vit C and beta-carotene) - cancer
6. Sodium - high blood pressure
7. Soluble fiber from oats and barley - heart disease
8. Soy - heart disease
9. Potassium - blood pressure and stroke
10. Plant sterol/stanol esters - heart disease
11. Sugar alcohols - dental caries
12. Fluoridated water - dental caries
13. Folic Acid - Neural Tube Defects
Portion Size
• A portion is the amount of food that you choose to eat for a meal
or snack. It can be big or small, you decide.
• A serving is a measured amount of food or drink, such as one
slice of bread or one cup (eight ounces) of milk.
• Many foods that come as a single portion actually contain multiple
servings. The Nutrition Facts label on packaged foods, on the
backs of cans, sides of boxes, etc. tells you the number of
servings in the container.
• For example, look at the label of a 20-ounce soda (usually
consumed as one portion). It has 2.5 servings in it. A 3-ounce
bag of chips, which some would consider a single portion,
contains 3 servings.
• Average portion sizes have grown so much over the past 20 years
that sometimes the plate arrives and there's enough food for two
or even three people on it. Growing portion sizes are changing
what Americans think of as a "normal" portion at home too. It is
called portion distortion.