Learning, Memory, and Product Positioning
Copyright © 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Role of Learning
Learning Theories and Involvement
Learning through Conditioning
Conditioning refers to learning based on
association of a stimulus and response.
• Classical (low involvement): using an
established relationship between a
stimulus and response (Pavlov Dog)
• Operant (high involvement): molding
or shaping behavior by using a
reinforcement (Skinner’s pigeon)
Affective Influence in Trial
The Process of Shaping
Cognitive learning encompasses all the mental
activities of humans as they work to solve
problems or cope with situations.
• Iconic Rote (low involvement): the
association between two or more concepts in
the absence of conditioning
• Vicarious/Modeling (low or high
involvement): Observing the outcomes of
others’ behaviors and adjusting their own
• Reasoning (high involvement): Individuals
engage in creative thinking to restructure and
recombine existing information as well as new
information to form new associations and
Summary of Learning Theories and Involvement
Class picks a product
Break up into groups of 4
Each group gets assigned a learning theory
Design advertising campaign for the product
based on the learning theory
• What involvement level are you basing the
• How do you know the involvement level is right?
• Will it work?
• Which learning theory is best for this product?
Linking Learning to Memory...
• Characteristics of Learning
• Strength of Learning
• Stimulus Generalization and Stimulus Discrimination
• Response Environment
• What is “memory”?
• How is memory like a computer?
The Impact of Repetition
Repetition Timing on Advertising Recall
Forgetting Over Time
Consumer Insight 9-1
• What is the relationship between explicit
and implicit memory?
• Why do marketers rely so much on
measuring of advertising recall?
Perceptual Map for Automobiles
Connecting Memory to Marketing Strategy
• Brand Equity: the value consumers
assign to a brand above and beyond the
functional characteristics of the product
• Brand Leverage: often termed family
branding, brand extensions, or umbrella
branding, refers to marketers capitalizing
on brand equity by using an existing
brand name for new products.