Fungi - Phsgirard.org
Fungi - Phsgirard.org
Fungi Kingdom contains:
Rusts & Smuts
• Mutualistic symbionts
Indian Pipe is saprophytic
• Break down organic material returning
nutrients to the soil.
• Yeasts are useful in the making of
bread and fermented drinks.
• Human pathogens e.g. athlete's foot
Extra-cellular digestion occurs by secreting enzymes into
environment and absorbing the nutrients produced.
Hypha - the vegetative
Septum - perforated
Mycelium - a mat of
Why aren’t fungi classified as plants?
• Non-photosynthetic (Heterotrophic)
• Fungi cell walls are made of chitin
• Plant cell walls are made of cellulose
• Fungi store their food as glycogen (like animals)
Plants and green algae store their food as starch
• Begins as a spore that grows when conditions are right
• Out of the spore wall grows a hypha
• The body of the fungus is made up of hyphal threads
collectively called the mycelium
• The mycelium grows in soil or within dead wood or living
• When growing conditions are favorable, the mycelium
develops fruiting bodies, e.g. mushrooms
• Fruiting bodies produce new spores.
Types of Asexual
• Forming spores at the end of the hyphae.
• Fragmentation- If the hyphe are broken, the
pieces will grow into complete new organisms.
• Yeasts reproduce by an asexual process called
budding. In this process, the yeast cell pinches
itself off to produce a small offspring cell.
Spores at the ends of hyphae
• Each of the four divisions of fungi
have different forms of sexual
• Chitridiomycota – Primitive flagellates
• Zygomycota - Common bread mold
• Basidiomycota - Mushrooms, puffballs, rusts,
smuts, and stinkhorns
• Ascomycota- Mildews, yeasts, and truffles
• Deuteromycota – Ringworm, athletes foot
• Most primitive group
• Aquatic parasites (may be responsible
for global decline in amphibians)
• Only Fungi with flagella
• Hyphae lack septa
• Asexual reproduction is by conjugation
• Underground hyphae intertwine and grow
upward to produce a mushroom.
• A "fairy ring" is actually a single organism. As
the hyphae expand outward, the mushrooms
grow around the outer edge. As long as
the organism survives, the circle of mushrooms
will be wider every year.
Mushroom Life Cycle
• Largest group of fungi
• Named for the reproductive sacs or Asci
that form near the tips of the hyphae.
• Ascospores are formed here and released
into the air when the ascus ruptures.
• These spores germinate to form new
• Over 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots.
• The fungus absorbs and concentrates phosphates for
delivery to the plant roots.
• In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the
plant during photosynthesis.
• A symbiotic association between a fungus and
a photosynthetic partner, usually green algae.
• The fungi hyphae provide
protection and hold
moisture while the
• Green color is because of
the green algae cells
growing between the
hyphae of the fungus.
• The grey is a lichen
• The orange is a fungus