Kingdom Fungi

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Transcript Kingdom Fungi

Kingdom Fungi
Ch 26
Pros/Cons of Fungi
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Cons
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Food spoilage
Disease
Some are
poisonous
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Pros
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Decompose dead
organic waste
Source of food and
food production
Bread and wine
making
Medicine
1. Characteristics of Fungi
a. Eukaryotes
b. Heterotrophs
c. Habitat-air, water, damp walls, gardens, food,
warm moist environments, cold temperature.
d. Most are multicellular; yeast is unicelluar.
The Fungi Kingdom
4 Reasons Fungi Are Different From Plants
1) fungi lack chlorophyll
2) fungi are not photosynthetic
•cannot produce their own food
Saprophyte-feeds on
dead/decaying organisms
•most are saprophytes (feed on dead organic matter)
•some are parasites (feed on living organisms)
3) they never reproduce by making seeds
4) most fungi have cell walls made of chitin… Except molds
•Plant cell walls are made of what?
cellulose
•molds have cell walls made of cellulose…like plants
Structure of Fungi
a.
b.
Hyphae(pl)-threadlike filaments which
develop from spores
They have cell walls composed of chitin.
which give the cell wall strength and
flexibility.
c. Mycelium (s)
-A network of filaments that may contain
different types of hyphae
Anchor fungus into its food source
 Allow fungus to absorb nutrients from food source
 Form spores for reproduction
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d. Some hyphae are divided into individual cells
by crosswalls called septa
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The septa contain pores……
The Fungi
Kingdom
Germ tube (Growing Spore)
(initial hypha)
single hypha
Mass of hyphae (mycelium)
Fungi are heterotrophic.
3. Extracellular digestion, process by
which food is digested outside the fungal
body and nutrients diffuse (are absored)
into hyphae
a. Saprophytes (decomposers)-feed on
dead organic matter
b. Parasites- absorb nutrients from the
living cells of their hosts
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Saprophyte
Turkey tail
fungus
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Mycorrhiza (mutualism)
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Mycorrhiza-symbiotic relationshio
between fungus and plant roots
Fungus increases plant’s absoprtion of
nutrients and water
 Plants provide organic nutrients
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BOTH BENEFIT!!!!
Lichen (Mutualism)
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Lichen-fungus and green algae or
cyanobacteria
Fungus provides water and minerals it
absorbs from rain and the air
 Algae provides nutrients.
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Lichens
The Fungi Kingdom
4. Reproduction
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3 types of Asexual reproduction
a. Budding
b. Fragmentation
c. Spores ---reproductive cell that grows into
a new organism without fertilization
 sporangium-sac where spores are produced;
protects spores from harsh conditions
 Spores are dispersed by wind, water, and animals
• Once spores are caught by something, they can be carried
long distances
The Fungi Kingdom
Kingdom Fungi Phylum Zygomycota
Ex: Rhizopus stonifer (bread mold)
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Hyphae grow when spores settle on moist
bread.
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Stolons grow along the surface producing
mycelim; rhizoids penetrate food and anchor
mycelium into bread
Hyphae grow upward to produce
sporangia which contains spores
The Fungi Kingdom
Rhizoids- hyphae of bread mold that digest
bread for ingestion
Ascomycotes (sac fungi)
Yeast, morels, truffles
 Importance
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Found on decaying food, Cause plant disease
 Yeast ferment sugar to produce the CO2 needed
to make beer, wine, bread (alcoholic
fermentation); also important to genetic studies
 Morels and truffles are edible
 Cause plant diseases such as Dutch elm disease,
chestnut blight, apple scab, and ergot.
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Dutch elm disease
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Chestnut blight
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Apple scab
morel
EX: yeasts, cup fungi, powdery mildews, & lichens
Lichens - a fungus and an organism with
chlorophyll that live together
Deuteromycotes
Cause of human infections which include
athlete’s foot, ringworm, yeast infections,
and jock itch
 Penicillin –antibiotic
 Food production-Soy sauce, blue cheese
citric acid used in jams, jellies, soft drinks,
fruit flavored candy
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Basidiomycotes (club fungi)
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Ex: mushrooms, puffballs, stinkhorns,
smut
Mushroom Reproduction