File - Mr. Schabo`s class!

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A.P. World History Chapter
3:Early African Societies Egypt
Mr. Schabo
Crestwood High School
World History
Geography of Egypt
• The Nile River
– Over 4100 Miles Long- the
longest river in the world!
– 90% of Egyptians live within
10 miles of the Nile!
– Yearly flooding brings silt from
mountains of Africa; settles on
Nile River’s banks; becomes
fertile land.
– Egyptians worshipped the
Nile River as a god.
Geography of Egypt (Continued)
• If floodwater was just a few feet low, silt and water from
crops was reduced. People starved (BOOOOOO!!!)
• If floodwater was higher than normal, towns were
flooded, destroying buildings, food storage areas, and
seeds farmers needed for planting (BOOOOOO!!!)
• Desert lands on both sides of Nile forced Egyptians on
small portion of land. Interaction with other societies was
reduced (BOOOOOO!!!!)
• However, deserts kept out invaders and Egypt did not
suffer the constant warfare that plagued the Fertile
Crescent (YAAAAAY!!!)
Upper & Lower Egypt
• Societies existed along the Nile from the
Mediterranean Sea well into Africa’s interior.
• Travel only possible along Nile to a set of rapids,
called the First Cataract.
• From Mediterranean Sea to the First Cataract, 2
regions develop: Upper and Lower Egypt.
• Upper Egypt: High elevation; from first cataract
to Nile Delta.
• Lower Egypt: Nile Delta – a delta is a section of
river that has branched many times or “fanned
out” into a rough triangle shape. A triangle was
the Greek letter “delta”, so that’s where the term
comes from.
• The Nile was used for transport. The Nile’s
current flows from south to north. Northbound
boats just drift with the current. Going south?
Use a sail.
Egypt Unites Into a Kingdom
• 5000 B.C. – Fishing villages along
the Nile. Each had its own gods,
ruler, etc.
• 3200 B.C. – Developed into Upper
& Lower Egypt. Each had its own
• 3000 B.C. – Upper & Lower Egypt
• Narmer is credited with uniting
Egypt. He established his capital
city, Memphis, where Upper and
Lower Egypt met, creating the first
Egyptian dynasty (there would be
31 dynasties over 2600 years!).
Pharaohs Rule as Gods
• Pharaoh: Ruler in Egyptian society.
• Where other societies saw their kings
as appointed by the gods, having the
gods’ favor, or representing the gods,
Egyptians believed that the pharaohs
were gods!
• They believed that the Pharaoh caused
the rising and setting of the sun,
flooding of the Nile, flourishing of
crops, etc. It was the Pharaoh’s duty to
promote truth, justice, and protect the
• This type of government, based on
religious authority, is called a
The Pyramids
• Egyptians believed that the Pharaohs had a ka (eternal
life force) which allowed pharaohs to rule after their
• Ka was like a living king in needs, wants, desires. What
did Pharaohs want in life?
• Tombs had to be more glorified and elaborate than their
palaces. Pharaohs laid to rest in a massive structure
called a pyramid.
• Pyramids not only reflected the importance of a Pharaoh,
but also the advancement of civilization.
Break: Hold up one finger for true,
two for false.
• The Nile is the third longest river in the world.
• Egypt’s lakes have kept it isolated from
outsiders, and it did not have the constant
warfare that plagued other societies.
• Where the Nile fans out into a delta is a
dividing point between Upper and Lower
• Egyptians believed that the Pharaoh was
appointed to rule them by the gods.
Egyptian Culture
Religion and Life
Polytheistic – Believed in over
2000 gods and goddesses and
built temples and statues to honor
them. Major gods and goddesses
– Re/Ra – The sun god
– Osiris – The god of the dead
– Isis – The ideal mother and
Believed in life after death.
Planned for death:
– Built tombs
– Practiced mummification
– Filled tomb with items to be used
in the afterlife.
Egyptian Society
• Society formed a pyramid, with royals at the
top, Upper class below them, followed by the
middle class, and the lower class on the
• Movement between classes due to marriage
or job success was allowed, and common.
• Women had the same rights as men: property
ownership, propose marriage or seek divorce.
• Slave labor was common in Egypt. Slaves
were usually obtained as prisoners of war.
• Egyptian writing is called hieroglyphics (from
Greek, meaning “sacred carving”).
• Earliest hieroglyphics used pictures to represent
ideas and concepts.
• Over time, hieroglyphs became associated with
sounds and a verbal language developed.
• Originally carved in stone, later hieroglyphs were
written on a paper-like substance made from
reeds called papyrus.
• Hieroglyphs deciphered by scholars using a key
called the Rosetta Stone, discovered in 1799.
Science and Technology
• Calendar – Based on astronomical observations
• Mathematics:
– Developed a number system.
– Used Geometry to set property boundaries and
develop architectural principles that cannot be
duplicated today!
• Medicine:
– Check heart rate using “pulse points”
– Used splints to treat broken bones
– Developed Minor surgical procedures