Latin American Peoples Win Independence

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Transcript Latin American Peoples Win Independence

Latin American Peoples Win Independence
• The French Revolution, the American Revolution, the
Enlightenment, etc. sparked a wave of ideas spreading
world wide about equality, freedom, and democracy
Colonial Society Divided
• Peninsulares- natives who were born in Spain
• Creoles- Spaniards born in Latin America
• Mestizos- people of mixed European and Indian descent
• Mulattos- persons of mixed European and African descent
Revolutions in the Americas
• St. Domingue (Haiti) was the first Latin American territory
to succeed from European rule
• In August of 1791, one hundred thousand enslaved Africans
rose in revolt of European rule
• Toussaint L’Ouverture rose to become a leader in Haiti even
though he was a former slave himself
• The French send troops to Haiti to stop the revolution.
L’Ouverture agrees to stop the revolution if the French end
slavery. The French agree, but later accuse L’Ouverture of
another uprising and take him to a French prison
• After L’Ouverture was imprisoned, Jean-Jacques Dessalines
took over the fight for freedom
• On Jan. 1, 1804, Dessalines declared Haiti the first black
colony to free itself from European rule
Creoles Lead Independence
• While Creoles could not hold public office, they were often
the most educated group of people in Latin America
• Many creoles traveled to Europe to study, where they
learned about the Enlightenment
• when Napoleon removed Ferdinand VII from power in 1808
and replaced him with his brother Joseph, Creoles argued
the power switched from the king to the people
• In 1810, rebellion broke up in several parts of Latin America
over the new ruler
• In South America, Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin
start their own revolutionary movements
Bolivar’s Route to Victory
• Venezuela declared independence in 1811, but it wasn’t
until 1821 that Bolivar actually won Venezuela’s
independence in battle against the Spanish
• After defeating the Spanish military in a battle in Bogota,
Bolivar marched south into Ecuador where he met Jose de
San Martin
San Martin Leads Southern Liberation Forces
• Argentina declared independence from Europe in 1816
• In order to drive Spanish forces completely out of Peru, San
Martin and Bolivar realize they will need a much larger
• San Martin turned his command over his troops over to
Bolivar, who led this unified revolutionary force to victory
over the Spanish at the Battle of Peru in 1824
Mexico Ends Spanish Rule
• In Mexico, Indians and mestizos played the major role in
the revolutionary forces
A Cry for Freedom
• In 1810, Miguel Hidalgo started a revolutionary movement
by ringing the church bells to gather peasants at the
church. Once peasants arrived, he urged them to rebel
against Spanish rule in his grito de Dolores
• In September of 1810, Hidalgo’s followers (80,000)
marched toward Mexico City. The Spanish army defeated
Hidalgo in 1811, and the movement was then led by Jose
Maria Morelos until 1815 when the Spanish army defeated
Mexico’s Independence
• When a revolution in Spain put a liberal group in power
there, Mexico’s creoles united in support of their
independence from Spain
• Agustin de Iturbide proclaimed Mexico’s independence in
• After the revolutions, Iturbide refused to acknowledge the
independence of Latin America states, and proclaimed
himself emperor over all of them
Brazil’s Royal Liberator
• When Napoleon’s armies invaded Spain and Portugal in
1807, King John VI and the royal family boarded a ship and
escaped to Brazil to avoid being captured
• For the next 14 years, Portugal was ran from Brazil. When
Napoleon was defeated in 1815, King John and the
Portuguese government returned to Portugal. Dom Pedro,
King John’s son, stayed behind in Brazil to rule Brazil.
• King John originally intended to make Brazil a Portuguese
colony again, but the Brazilians refused
• Instead, 8,000 signed a petition asking Dom Pedro to rule,
and he agreed
• On Sept. 7th, 1822 he officially declared Brazil independent
Europe Faces Revolutions
Clash of Philosophies
• In the first half of the 1800’s, three ideologies on
government emerged amongst different groups of people
as to which style of government would best suit the
1. Conservative- usually wealthy property owners and
nobility who argued for protecting the traditional
monarchs of Europe after C.o.V
2. Liberal- middle-class business leaders and merchants who
wanted to give more power to elected parliaments (only
the educated and landowners should vote)
3. Radical- includes many peasants who favored draastic
change to extend democracy to all people
Nationalism Develops
• Nationalism is the belief that the people’s greatest loyalty
should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of
people who share a common culture and history
• The nationalist movement “blurred” the lines separating
the three political theories going around
• When a nation had its own independent government, it
was considered a nation-state
• In 1815 Europe only France, Britain, and Spain could call
themselves nation-states
Nationalists Challenge Conservative Power
• The first people to win self-rule in Europe were the Greeks
when they rebelled against the Ottoman Turks in 1821.
Greeks Gain Independence
• Other Christian countries around the globe felt sympathy
towards Greece because they were being controlled by the
Muslim Ottomans
• In 1827 a combined British, French, and Russian fleet
destroyed the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Navarino
• In 1830 Britain, France, and Russia signed a treaty
guaranteeing an independent kingdom of Greece
1830’s Uprisings Crushed
• By the 1830’s, the order established by the Congress of
Vienna was deteriorating and liberals/nationalists were
revolting against conservative governments
• Riots broke out in Belgium and in October of 1830 the
Belgians declare their independence from the Dutch
• In Italy, nationalists worked to unite many separated states
(some of which were controlled by Austria, or the pope)
• Poles rebelled against Russian control and staged a revolt in
Warsaw late in 1830
• By the mid-1830’s there appeared to be a new order, but
the stability didn’t last long
1848 Revolutions Fail to Unite
• In 1848, ethnic uprisings sprang up throughout Europe
• Metternich abdicated the Austrian throne after a mob
clashed with Austrian police in Vienna
• Many liberal gains in governance were lost to conservatives
within a year
• By 1849, Europe practically had returned to the level of
conservatism that had controlled governments before 1848
Radicals Change France
• In 1830, France’s King Charles X tried to bring back the old
• The attempt sparked riots throughout France, which forced
Charles X to flee to Britain. Louis-Philippe, who supported
liberal reforms replaced Charles X
The Third Republic
• By 1848, Louis-Philippe had lost popularity
• Again, a mob in Paris overturned the monarchy and established
a republic
• The new republican government fell apart almost immediately
 the radicals split into factions with one wanting political
reform, and the other wanting social/economic reform
• Bloody battles spurred in Parisian streets, causing many to shift
support away from the radicals
• As a result, a moderate constitution was drawn up in 1848 that
set up a parliament and established a strong presidency elected
by the people
France Accepts a Strong Ruler
• In December of 1848, Louis-Napoleon (Napoleon’s
nephew) won the presidential election
• Four years later, he was crowned Emperor Napoleon III
• The people faintly accepted the new emperor because they
feared political instability and believed that a strong ruler
was the solution
• As emperor, Louis-Napoleon built railroads, encouraged
industrialization, etc.
• Because of Louis-Napoleon’s policies, unemployment
decreased and the country experienced genuine prosperity
Reform in Russia
• Unlike France in the 1800’s, Russia was still involved in
• The czars didn’t want to end serfdom because they needed
the support of the landowners
Defeat Brings Change
• In 1853, Czar Nicholas I threatened to take over part of the
Ottoman Empire in the Crimean War
• Due to the limited industries and transportation system,
Russian troops didn’t receive adequate supplies and lost
the war in 1856
• After the war, Nicholas I’s son Alexander II decided to bring
reforms to Russia
Reform and Reaction
• First and boldest move of Alexander II was freeing the serfs
in 1861  government paid landowners for their land, and
freed serfs had 49 years to pay off the land given to them
• In effect, they were still tied to the land. Just by the
government rather than a vassal
• Alexander II was assassinated in 1881, and the reforms
• Alexander III tightened czarist control and encouraged
industrial development