Religious Wars and European Expansion

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Transcript Religious Wars and European Expansion

Religious Wars and European
Questions of the Day
Daniel W. Blackmon
AP European History
Coral Gables Sr. High School
Essay of the Day
• How did the Reformation
contribute to the development of
nation-states in Western Europe
between 1450 and 1648? Acorn
Key Words
• How
• Reformation
• Development
• Nation-States
• 1450-1648
Which Nation-States?
• England
• France
• Brandenburg-Prussia
• United Provinces
• Sweden
SFI: England
• Henry VIII
• Catherine of Aragon
• Anne Boleyn
• Supremacy Act
• Sir Thomas More
• Destruction of the monasteries
SFI: England
• Thomas Cromwell
• The Book of Common Prayer
• Thomas Cranmer
• Edward VI
• Bloody Mary
• Marriage to Philip II
SFI: England
• The Elizabethan Settlement
• Catholic plots against Elizabeth
• Mary, Queen of Scots
• John Knox
• Sea Hawks
SFI: England
• Sir Francis Drake
• Rebellion in the Low Countries
• English wool trade
• Spanish Armada
SFI: England
• Confiscation of Church lands and
distribution to gentry, insular
attitudes towards foreigners,
especially Philip II, the Elizabethan
Settlement all serve to strengthen
English self-consciousness and the
power of Parliament.
SFI: France
• Huguenots
• Catherine de Medici
• Concordat of Bologna
• Bourbons, Guises, Montmorency
• St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
SFI: France
• Henry of Navarre (Henri IV)
• War of the Three Henrys
• Politiques
• Jean Bodin
• “Paris is worth a mass.”
• Edict of Nantes
SFI: France
• The Wars of Religion in France
result in such chaos and destruction
that a strong, absolutist monarch is
seen as the only alternative to civil
SFI: Brandenburg-Prussia
• Frederick William I
• The Great Elector
• Lutheran
• Destruction of Thirty Years’ War
leads to a permanent tax for a
standing army
SFI: United Provinces
• The Dutch Rebellion
• Margaret of Parma
• Iconoclasm
• Duke of Egmont
• William the Silent of Orange
SFI: United Provinces
• Iconoclasm
• Duke of Alva
• Council of Blook
• Sea Beggars
• The Spanish Fury
SFI: United Provinces
• Duke of Parma
• Union of Arras
• Union of Utrecht
• United Provinces
• Elizabeth I
SFI: United Provinces
• Twelve Years’ Truce
• Treaty of Westphalia
• Dutch speaking, Calvinist North,
French speaking, Catholic South
SFI: United Provinces
• The Spanish attempt to impose
religious uniformity, more than the
taxing of the Low Countries to pay
for dynastic wars, led to the Dutch
SFI: United Provinces
• The long war and terrible costs
resulted in the separation of the
French and Dutch speaking
provinces along religious as well as
linguistic lines, and led directly to
the independence of the United
SFI: Sweden
• The Vasa dynasty
• Lutherans
• Gustavus Adolphus
• Swedish Phase of Thirty Years’
SFI: Sweden
• Breitenfeld
• Lutzen
• Treaty of Westphalia
• Swedish Baltic possessions
What Common Factors?
• The establishment of one church as
official causes religion to become a
political issue.
• Where religious adherents refused
to compromise, chaos and civil war
Common Factors
• Religion is the pretext, politics the
• The most successful leaders are the
• The Reformation and Wars of
Religion help shape national
Essay of the Day
• “In the fifteenth century, European
society was still centered on the
Mediterranean region, but by the
end of the seventeenth century, the
focus of Europe had shifted north.”
Essay of the Day
• Identify and analyze the economic
developments between 1450 and
1700 that helped bring this about.
AP 1989
Key Words
• “Mediterranean”
• “Shifted north”
• “Identify”
• “Analyze”
• “1450-1700”
• Political
• Economic
• Religious
• Social
• Intellectual
Political Factors
• Weakening of Mediterranean states
– Italy dominated by Spain
– Hapsburg-Valois wars
– Fall of Constantinople led to
weakening of Venetian trade empire
Political Factors
• Atlantic states– Spain, Portugal,
France, the Netherlands, England–
had governments strong and
wealthy enough to pay for
Political Factors
• Mercantilism
– Both political and economic policy.
– Stresses state direction of the
– Colonies provide raw materials and a
market for finished products.
Political Factors
• Mercantilism emphasized
competition between states,
leading to colonies and frequent
• The colonial powers gained access
to the world’s products.
Political Factors
• Dutch independence won under a
commercial aristocracy.
• The Dutch create a far flung
trading empire.
Political Factors
• England under Elizabeth enjoyed
internal peace and stability.
• Elizabeth encouraged trade
Political Factors
• England under the Stuarts did not
enjoy internal peace.
• The Crown did encourage colonies
– both royal and proprietary – and
trade via joint stock companies.
Political Factors
• England in this era establishes the
13 North American colonies, and
especially the West Indian
colonies, and begins the conquest
of India.
Political Factors
• England and the Whigs
– The Whigs advocated religious
toleration, commercial interests and
the prosperity of landowners.
• Under George I (r. 1714-27) , the
Whigs under Robert Walpole were
Political Factors
• France acquires the sugar colonies
of the West Indies (St. Domingue,
Martinique, Guadalupe) as well as
New France (furs) in this era.
• Mercantilism under Colbert
encouraged this process.
Economic Factors
• Commercial Revolution
Economic Factors
• Price Revolution
– Inflation of 2-3% per year
Spanish Price Levels
• Years
• 1501-1510
• 1591-1600
• 1601-1610
French Price Levels
• Years
• 1501-1525
• 1576-1600
Goods Wages
English Price Levels
• Years
• 1501-1510
• 1593-1602
• 1643-1652
Price Revolution
• Causes:
– Silver and gold from America
– Debasement of coinage
– New mining techniques
– Population growth meant greater
pressure on scarce resources
Price Revolution
• Impact
– Commodity prices, especially for
bread, rise sharply.
– Wages did not keep pace with price
Price Revolution
• Peasants suffer intensely.
• Aristocrats in Italy and France,
whose peasants had long term
leases, suffered as well—their
incomes were fixed.
Price Revolution
• Landlords come under heavy
pressure to break old customs and
substitute short term leases, as well
as to enclose and seek more
productive agriculture.
Price Revolution
• Short term leases hurt tenants.
• Enclosure created a class of
landless poor which tended to
move to the city.
• Laborers’ wages did not keep up
with prices, and they suffered.
Price Revolution
• Merchants, some landlords,
manufacturers, speculators and
bankers benefited as prices rose
faster than the costs of production.
Economic Factors
• The New World and Expansion of
World Trade
• The Atlantic states were positioned
to exploit new trading patterns.
• They also had governments able to
push expansion
Economic Factors
• New Products
– Tobacco
– Sugar
– Coffee
– Cocoa
– Tea
Economic Factors
• Joint stock companies
– England: East India Company,
Virginia Company, Plymouth
Company, Royal African Company
– Dutch East India Company, Dutch
West India Company
Economic Factors
• New Industries
– Discovery of huge codfish banks off
Newfoundland. This industry
dominated by English and French
– Shipbuilding, especially in the
Economic Factors
• Metal working, especially in armor
and armaments.
• Mining improvements, both in
technology allowing much deeper
mines and in improved extraction
of silver from lead alloys.
Economic Factors
• “Putting out” system grows in
Northern Europe, where merchants
begin to deliver wool to individual
peasants for spinning, weaving,
and dying. This increases
production and lowers costs, bypassing the guilds.
Economic Factors
• Banking
– Double entry book keeping
– Maritime insurance
– Book transfers
– Autonomous branch offices
• Invented by Bardi, Peruzzi, Medici
Economic Factors
• The House of Fugger
– Patriarch was Jacob Fugger the Rich
– Began in woolen manufacture and
weaving, with offices in Venice for
the spice trade.
Economic Factors
• Expanded into banking, with offices in
London, Antwerp, and Lisbon.
– Note shift northwards.
• Loaned money to the Hapsburgs.
• Controlled silver and copper mines in
Economic Factors
• The Fugger empire collapsed when
the Habsburgs defaulted on their
loans in the late 16th century.
Economic Factors
• The Bank of Amsterdam and the
Bank of England emerge.
• Amsterdam and London become
the financial centers of Europe.
Social Factors
• Population Growth
– Recovery after the Black Death
– Dutch land reclamation pointed the
way to a more productive
Social Factors
• Population growth led to increases
in handicrafts, textiles and
metallurgy, especially in England,
Flanders and parts of northern
Social Factors
• Enclosure and distress in England
produced the Great Migration,
which brought thousands of
immigrants overseas.
Intellectual Factors
• Max Weber and The Protestant
Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
Intellectual Factors
• Weber believes that the doctrine of
calling, to the Calvinist, was a
strenuous activity chosen by the
individual and pursued with
religious zeal.
Intellectual Factors
• Calvinist virtues included
diligence, thrift, sobriety, and
• Calvinism created habits which
survived the zeal of the Calvinists
Intellectual Factors
• This psychological shift might be
described thus:
• “In the middle ages, the rich man
had been suspected because he was
rich. In the 16th and 17th centuries,
the rich man was respected because
he was rich.”
Intellectual Factors
• The Weber Thesis has come under
attack from such historians as
Werner Sombart and H.M.
• While very suggestive, it is too
Intellectual Factors
• However, clearly the spiritual
individualism of Protestantism
leads to economic individualism;
breaking the authority of the
Church makes possible new
economic assumptions.
Identifications of the Day
• Defenestration of Prague
• Gustavus Adolphus
• Treaty of Westphalia
• Cuius regio, eius religio
• Grimmelshausen
Multiple Choice
• The Edict of Nantes in 1598 did which
of the following:
• A.
Ensured Anglo-French
cooperation throughout the seventeenth
• B.
Created a French church
separated from papal authority.
Multiple Choice
• C.
Ended the War of the
Spanish Succession
• D.
Proclaimed the toleration of
• E.
Precipitated the French
Wars of Religion.
Multiple Choice
Multiple Choice
• In the mid-seventeenth century, the
area shaded black shown on the
map above belonged to
Multiple Choice
• A.
• B.
• C.
• D.
• E.
Multiple Choice
• In the first half of the seventeenth
century, the Austrian Hapsburgs
subdued revolt and centralized
control in their territories by doing
which of the following?
Multiple Choice
• A.
Emancipating the peasantry
and encouraging agricultural
• B.
Allying with the urban middle
classes and encouraging commercial
• C.
Establishing a national church
headed by the Hapsburg emperor and
redistributing former church properties.
Multiple Choice
• D.
Creating a customs union to
promote trade and acquiring new
territories to supply merchants with
raw materials.
• E.
Waging warfare against rebel
groups and supporting the Catholic
Multiple Choice
• Which of the following was a major
result of the Thirty Years’ War (16181648)?
• A.
The long-term strengthening of
the Holy Roman Emperor’s authority.
• B.
The banning of Calvinism in
the German states
Multiple Choice
• C.
The establishment of strong
Russian influence in the northern
German states.
• D.
The loss of as much as onethird of the German-speaking
population through war, plague,
and starvation.
Multiple Choice
• E.
The encouragement of rapid
economic development in many
German-speaking cities.
Identifications of the Day
• Astrolabe
• Caravel
• Alfonso de Albuquerque
• Price Revolution
• Potosí
Multiple Choice
Multiple Choice
• The shaded areas on the map above
represent which of the following?
• A.
Dynastic lands of the
Hapsburgs in the sixteenth century
• B.
Participants in the Thirty
Multiple Choice
• Years’ War in the seventeenth century
• C.
Protestant regions in the
eighteenth century
• D.
Members of the Holy Alliance
in the nineteenth century
• E.
Members of the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization in the twentieth
Multiple Choice
• Which of the following groups was
instrumental in ending the Wars of
Religion (1562-1598) in France?
• A.
A group of Catholics and
Protestants called the politiques
• B.
The French Calvinist nobility
Multiple Choice
• C.
Catholic priests led by the
papal nuncio
• D.
A coalition between lowerclass Calvinists and Catholics
• E.
The Huguenots
Multiple Choice
• Ferdinand and Isabella supported the
expulsion or conversion of Muslims
and Jews in Spain because
• A.
Ferdinand and Isabella were
hostile to religious faiths other than
• B.
Ferdinand and Isabella feared
that if they did nothing many
Christians would leave Spain
Multiple Choice
• C.
Spanish Muslims and Jews
were believed to hinder the
economic development of Spain
• D.
Spanish Muslims and Jews
outnumbered Christians in most
large cities in the kingdom.
Multiple Choice
• E.
Spanish Muslims and Jews
were protected by foreign powers
hostile to Spain.
Multiple Choice
• The greatest beneficiary in the Thirty
Years’ War (1618-1648)
The Holy Roman Empire
Multiple Choice
• The long-term effect of the Thirty
Years’ War on the German states was
• A.
Restrict Lutheranism to
southern German states
• B.
Initiate a long era of peace and
rapid economic recovery
Multiple Choice
• C.
• D.
Encourage unification
Devastate the German
states’ economies
• E.
Increase the power of the
Holy Roman Emperor
Essay of the Day
• Evaluate the relative importance of
the religious rivalries and dynastic
ambitions that shaped the course of
the Thirty Years’ War. AP 1981
Key Words
• “Evaluate”
• “Relative importance”
• “Religious rivalries”
• “Dynastic ambitions”
• “shaped the course”
SFI: Religious Rivalries
• Lutherans vs. Catholics
SFI: Dynastic Ambitions
• Hapsburgs (Spain and Holy Roman
• Wittelsbach (Bavaria)
• Vasa (Sweden)
• Bourbon (France)
The Bohemian Phase
• Religious or Dynastic?
– List the SFI relevant to this phase in
two columns and then draw a
Danish Phase
• Religious or Dynastic?
– List the SFI relevant to this phase in
two columns and then draw a
Swedish Phase
• Religious or Dynastic?
– List the SFI relevant to this phase in
two columns and then draw a
French or International Phase
• Religious or Dynastic?
– List the SFI relevant to this phase in
two columns and then draw a
Treaty of Westphalia 1648
• Religious or Dynastic?
– Divide the key terms of the treaty
into those that address religious
issues and those which address
dynastic issues.
– Draw a conclusion as to which was
more important.
Construct Your Thesis
• You have 5 minutes to write a
thesis paragraph.
Identifications of the Day
• Audiencia
• Intendants
• Mercantilism
• Quinto
• Corregidores
Multiple Choice
• Which of the following resulted from
the defeat of the Spanish Armada in
• A.
Spanish domination of the
Mediterranean was ended
• B.
The invasion of England was
Multiple Choice
• C.
Dutch sympathies for the
Spanish cause increased
• D.
War broke out between
England and France
• E.
A series of uprisings occurred
in the Spanish colonies of Central and
South America
Multiple Choice
• In the period from Columbus’
discovery of the Americas to the
American Revolution all of the
following goods were imported
from the New World to Europe in
large quantities EXCEPT
Multiple Choice
• A.
• B.
• C.
• D.
• E.
Iron ore
Multiple Choice
• Which of the following explorers,
sailing under the flag of Portugal,
reached the west coast of India in
1498 after rounding the Cape of
Good Hope and crossing the Indian
Multiple Choice
• A.
• B.
• C.
• D.
• E.
John Cabot
Vasco da Gama
Bartolomeo Dias
Amerigo Vespucci
Ferdinand Magellan
Multiple Choice
• “Religion supplies the pretext and
gold the motive.”
This statement was a
contemporary characterization of
Multiple Choice
• A.
The launching of the Spanish
The execution of Charles I
The posting of the Ninety-five
New religious orders such as
the Ursulines and Jesuits
Spanish and Portuguese
expansion in the New World