Unit #11, Chapters 24-25 Lecture Powerpoint
Transcript Unit #11, Chapters 24-25 Lecture Powerpoint
Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the
West and The Industrial Revolution
AP Unit #11
Peninsulares / Creoles / Mulattos
Peninsulares – Spanish & Portuguese officials who lived temporarily in
Latin America for political & economic gain. Peninsulares were at the top
of the Latin American class structure, holding all important positions.
Creoles – Descendants of Europeans who were born in Latin America.
Creoles were the leaders of Latin American revolutions, favoring
enlightenment ideals and opposing European domination of their trade.
Mulattos – People of mixed European and African descent who made up
the lowest class in Latin American society.
By the end of the 18th century, the political ideals stemming from the revolution in North America put
European control of Latin America in peril. Latin America’s social class structure played a big role in how the
19th century revolutions occurred and what they achieved. Social classes divided colonial Latin America.
Peninsulares were Spanish and Portuguese officials who resided temporarily in Latin America for political and
economic gain. At the top of the class structure, peninsulares dominated Latin America. They held all
important positions. Creoles controlled land and business and resented the peninsulares. The peninsulares
regarded the creoles as second-class citizens. Mestizos were the largest group. They worked as servants or
A wealthy Venezuelan Creole, Bolivar led a volunteer army of
revolutionaries in a struggle for independence from Spain from
1811 to 1822. Bolivar is revered as the “George Washington of
South America”. He hoped to unite the Spanish colonies of South
America into a single country called Grand Colombia but was
unable to do so as a result of geographic and political obstacles.
Even though they could not hold high public office, creoles were the least oppressed of those born in LatinAmerica. They were also the best educated. In fact, many wealthy young creoles traveled to Europe for their
education. In Europe, they read about and adopted Enlightenment ideas. When they returned to Latin
America, they brought ideas of revolution with them. Napoleon’s conquest of Spain in 1808 triggered revolts
in the Spanish colonies. Removing Spain’s King Ferdinand VII, Napoleon made his brother Joseph king of
Spain. Many creoles might have supported a Spanish king. However, they felt no loyalty to a king imposed by
the French. Creoles, recalling Locke’s idea of the consent of the governed, argued that when the real king
was removed, power shifted to the people. In 1810, rebellion broke out in several parts of Latin America.
Simon Bolivar’s native Venezuela declared its independence from Spain in 1811. But the struggle for
independence had only begun. Bolivar’s volunteer army of revolutionaries suffered numerous defeats. Twice
Bolivar had to go into exile. A turning point came in August 1819. Bolivar led over 2,000 soldiers on a daring
march through the Andes into what is now Colombia. Coming from this direction, he took the Spanish army
in Bogota completely by surprise and won a decisive victory. By 1821, Bolivar had won Venezuela’s
independence. He then marched south into Ecuador. In Ecuador, Bolivar finally met Jose de San Martin.
Together they would decide the future of the Latin American revolutionary movement.
Jose de San Martin
Though native to Argentina, Martin had spent most of his life
serving in the Spanish army in Europe. He returned to South
America following Napoleon’s conquest of Spain, leading
revolutionary forces to oust European armies from Argentina,
Chile, and finally, in 1824, Peru.
Jose de San Martin believed that the Spaniards must be removed from all of South America if any South
American nation was to be free. Bolivar began the struggle for independence in Venezuela in 1810. He then
went on to lead revolts in New Granada (Colombia) and Ecuador. By 1810, the forces of San Martin had
liberated Argentina from Spanish authority. In January 1817, San Martin led his fortress over the Andes to
attack the Spanish in Chile. The journey was an amazing feat, 2/3 of the pack mules and horses died during
the trip. Soldiers suffered from lack of oxygen and severe cold while crossing mountain passes. The Andes
mountains were more than two miles above sea level.
The arrival of San Martin’s forces in Chile completely surprised the Spaniards. Spanish forces were badly
defeated at the Battle of Chacabuco on February 12, 1817. In 1821 San Martin moved on to Lima, Peru, the
center of Spanish authority. San Martin was convinced that he could not complete the liberation of Peru
alone. He welcomed the arrival of Simon Bolivar and his forces. Bolivar, the “Liberator of Venezuela,” took on
the task of crushing the last significant Spanish army at Ayacucho on December 9, 1824.
By the end of 1824, Peru, Uruguay, Paraguay, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile had all
become free of Spain. Earlier, in 1822, the prince regent of Brazil had declared Brazil’s independence from
Portugal. The Central American states had become independent in 1823. In 1823 and 1839, they divided into
five republics: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua.
Miguel Hidalgo / Jose Maria Morelos
Miguel Hidalgo – “The Father of Mexico”; Roman Catholic Priest
who founded the Mexican Independence movement in 1810.
Hidalgo organized an army of mostly poor Mexicans which
succeeded in winning early victories but was defeated by a more
well-armed colonial army from Mexico City. Hidalgo was executed
by firing squad in 1811.
Jose Maria Morelos – A Catholic Priest and associate of Hidalgo,
Morelos replaced Hidalgo as the leader of the revolutionary
movement in Mexico. Morelos was defeated by a creole army led
by Augustin Iturbide in 1815. Ironically, 6 years later Iturbide led
Mexico to achieve its Independence from Spain in 1821.
Beginning in 1810, Mexico, too, experienced a revolt. The first real hero of Mexican independence was Miguel
Hidalgo. A parish priest, Hidalgo lived in a village about 100 miles from Mexico City. Hidalgo had studied the
French Revolution. He aroused the local Native Americans and mestizos to free themselves from the Spanish.
On September 16, 1810, Hidalgo led this ill-equipped army of thousands of Native Americans and mestizos in
an attack against the Spaniards. He was an inexperienced military leader, however, and his forces were soon
crushed. A military court sentenced Hidalgo to death. However, his memory lives on. In fact, September 16,
the first day of the uprising, is Mexico’s Independence Day. Events in Mexico took an unexpected turn in
1820, when a revolution in Spain put a liberal group in power there. Mexico’s creoles feared the loss of their
privileges in the Spanish-controlled colony. So they united in support of Mexico’s independence from Spain.
Closure Assignment #1
Answer the following questions based on what
you have learned from Chapter 24, Section 1:
1. Compare and contrast the leadership of the
South American revolutions to the leadership
of Mexico’s revolution.
2. Would creole revolutionaries tend to be
democratic or authoritarian leaders? Explain.
3. How were events in Europe related to the
revolutions in Latin America?
Political philosophy based on tradition and a belief in the value of social
stability which was supported by European leaders following the defeat of
Napoleon; Conservatives favor obedience to political authority, support
organized religion, and hate revolutions.
Eventually, the great powers adopted a principle of intervention. According to this principle, the great powers
had the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimate
monarchs to their thrones. Refusing to accept the principle, Britain argued that the great powers should not
interfere in the internal affairs of other states. The other great powers, however, used military forces to crush
the revolutions in Spain and Italy, as well as to restore monarchs to their thrones.
Between 1815 and 1830, conservative governments throughout Europe worked to maintain the old order.
However, powerful forces of change – known as liberalism and nationalism – were also at work. Nationalism
was an even more powerful force for change in the 19th century than was liberalism. Nationalism arose when
people began to identify themselves as part of a community defined by a distinctive language, common
institution, and customs. This community is called a nation. In earlier centuries, people’s loyalty went to a
king or to their town or region. In the 19th century, people began to feel that their chief loyalty was to the
Conservatism is based on tradition and a belief in the value of social stability. Most conservatives at that time
favored obedience to political authority. They also believed that organized religion was crucial to keep order
in society. Conservatives hated revolutions and were unwilling to accept demands from people who wanted
either individual rights or representative governments. To maintain the new balance of power, Great Britain,
Russia, Prussia, and Austria (and later France) agreed to meet at times. The purpose of these conferences
was to take steps needed to maintain peace in Europe. These meetings came to be called the Concert of
Political philosophy based on Enlightenment ideas which argues
that people should be as free as possible from government.
Liberals had a common set of political beliefs. Chief among them was the protection of civil liberties, or the
basic rights of all people. These civil liberties included equality before the law and freedom of assembly,
speech, and the press. Liberals believed that all these freedoms should be guaranteed by a written document
such as the American Bill of Rights. Most liberals wanted religious toleration for all, as well as separation of
church and state. Liberals also demanded the right of peaceful opposition to the government. They believed
that a representative assembly (legislature) elected by qualified voters should make laws.
Many liberals, then, favored government ruled by a constitution, such as in a constitutional monarchy, in
which a constitution regulates a king. They believed that written constitutions would guarantee the rights
they sought to preserve. Liberals did not, however, believe in a democracy in which everyone had a right to
vote. They thought that the right to vote and hold office should be open only to men of property. Liberalism,
then, was tied to middle-class men, especially industrial middle-class men, who wanted voting rights for
themselves so they could share power with the landowning classes. The liberals feared mob rule, and had
little desire to let the lower class share the power.
The French monarchy was finally overthrown in 1848. A group of moderate and radical republicans set up a
provisional, or temporary, government. The republicans were people who wished France to be a republic – a
government in which leaders are elected. The provisional government called for the election of
representatives to a Constituent Assembly that would draw up a new constitution. Election was to be by a
universal male suffrage.
Closure Question #1: Why might liberals and radicals join together in a
Political philosophy developed in the early 1800s which favors
drastic change to extend democracy to all people. Radicals
believed that governments should practice the ideals of the French
Revolution – liberty, equality, and brotherhood.
In the first half of the 19th century, nationalism found a strong ally in liberalism. Most liberals believed that
freedom could only be possible in people who ruled themselves. Each group of people should have its own
state. No state should attempt to dominate another state. The association with liberalism meant that
nationalism had a wider scope. Beginning in 1830, the forces of change – liberalism and nationalism – began
to break through the conservative domination of Europe. In France, liberals overthrew the Bourbon monarch
Charles X in 1830 and established a constitutional monarchy. Political support for the new monarch, Louis
Philippe, a cousin of Charles X, came from the upper-middle class.
In the same year, 1830, 3 more revolutions occurred. Nationalism was the chief force in all 3 of them.
Belgium, which had been annexed to the former Dutch Republic in 1815, rebelled and created an
Independent state. In Poland and Italy, which were both ruled by foreign powers, efforts to break free were
less successful. Russians crushed the Polish attempt to establish an independent Polish nation. Meanwhile
Austrian troops marched south and put down revolts in a number of Italian states.
The conservative order still dominated much of Europe as the midpoint of the 19th century approached.
However, the forces of liberalism and nationalism continued to grow. These forces of change erupted once
more in the revolutions of 1848. Revolution in France once again sparked revolution in other countries.
Severe economic problems beginning in 1846 brought untold hardship in France to the lower-middle class,
workers, and peasants. At the same time, members of the middle class clamored for the right to vote. The
government of Louis Philippe refused to make changes, and opposition grew.
Closure Question #1: Why might liberals and radicals join together in a
The belief that people’s greatest loyalty should not be to a king or
an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture
Nationalism did not become a popular force for change until the French Revolution. From then on, nationalists came
to believe that each nationality should have its own government. Thus, the Germans, who were separated into many
principalities, wanted national unity in a German nation-state with one central government. Subject peoples, such as
the Hungarians, wanted the right to establish their own governments rather than be subject to the Austrian empire.
Nationalism was a threat to the existing political order. A united Germany, for example, would upset the balance of
power set up at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. At the same time, an independent Hungarian state would mean the
breakup of the Austrian Empire.
Great Britain managed to avoid the revolutionary upheavals of the first half of the 19 th century. In 1815, aristocratic
landowning classes, which dominated both houses of Parliament, governed Great Britain. In 1832, Parliament passed
a bill that increased the number of male voters. The new voters were chiefly members of the industrial middle class.
By giving the industrial middle class an interest in ruling, Britain avoided revolution in 1848. In the 1850s and 1860s,
Parliament continued to make social and political reforms that helped the country to remain stable. However, despite
reforms, Britain saw a rising Irish nationalist movement demanding increased Irish control over Irish internal affairs.
Another reason for Britain’s stability was its continuing economic growth. By 1850, real wages of workers rose
significantly, enabling the working classes to share the prosperity.
In France, events after the revolution of 1848 moved toward the restoration of the monarchy. In 1848, LouisNapoleon returned to the people to ask for the restoration of the empire. In this plebiscite, 97% responded with a
yes vote. On December 2, 1852, Louis-Napoleon assumed the title of Napoleon III, Emperor of France. The
government of Napoleon III was clearly authoritarian. As chief of state, Napoleon III controlled the armed forces,
police and civil service. Only he could introduce legislation and declare war. The Legislative Corps gave an
appearance of representative government, because the members of the group were elected by universal male
suffrage for 6-year terms. However, they could neither initiate legislation nor affect the budget.
Closure Question #1: Why might liberals and radicals join together in a
Government of a region by people who share a common culture
and history. Nation-states defend the territory and way of life of
the people, representing the nation to the rest of the world.
A multinational state is a collection of different peoples living in the same country. The Austrian Empire
included Germans, Czechs, Magyars (Hungarians), Slovaks, Romanians, Slovenes, Poles, Croats, Serbians,
Ruthenians (Ukranians), and Italians. Prague was a major city populated by the Czech peoples but ruled by
Austria; In 1848 Czechs attempted to revolt against Austria to establish an independent nation but were
defeated by the Austrians.
The Austrian Empire had many problems. Only the German-speaking Hapsburg dynasty held the empire
together. The Germans , though only a quarter of the population, played a leading role in governing the
Austrian Empire. In March 1848, demonstrations erupted in the major cities. To calm the demonstrators, the
Hapsburg court dismissed Metternich, the Austrian foreign minister, who fled to England. In Vienna,
revolutionary forces took control of the capital and demanded a liberal constitution. To appease the
revolutionaries, the government gave Hungary its own legislature. In Bohemia, the Czechs clamored for their
Austrian officials had made concessions to appease the revolutionaries but were determined to reestablish
their control over the empire. In June 1848, Austrian military forces crushed the Czech rebels in Prague. By
the end of October, the rebels in Vienna had been defeated as well. With the help of a Russian army of
140,000 men, the Hungarian revolutionaries were finally subdued in 1849. The revolutions in the Austrian
Empire had failed.
In 1848, a revolt broke out against the Austrians in Lombardy and Venetia Italy. Revolutionaries in other
Italian states also took up arms and sought to create liberal constitutions and a unified Italy. By 1849,
however, the Austrians had reestablished complete control over Lombardy and Venetia. The old order also
prevailed in the rest of Italy. Throughout Europe in 1848, popular revolts started upheavals that had led to
liberal constitutions and liberal governments. However, moderate liberals and more radical revolutionaries
were soon divided over their goals and so conservative rule was reestablished.
Geographic region along the eastern Mediterranean Sea which
includes all or part of present-day Greece, Albania, Bulgaria,
Romania, Turkey, and the former Yugoslavia. The entire region had
been controlled by the Ottoman Empire; however, beginning in
1821 nationalist movements in the Balkans sparked violence.
The first people to win self-rule during the early 1800s were the Greeks. For centuries, Greece had been part
of the Ottoman Empire. Greeks, however, had kept alive the memory of their ancient history and culture.
Spurred on by the nationalist spirit, they demanded independence and rebelled against the Ottoman Turks in
1821. The most powerful European governments opposed revolution. However, the cause of Greek
independence was popular with people around the world. Russians, for example, felt a connection to Greek
Orthodox Christians, who were ruled by the Muslim Ottomans. Educated Europeans and Americans loved and
respected ancient Greek culture.
Eventually, as popular support for Greece grew, the powerful nations of Europe took the side of the Greeks.
In 1827, a combined British, French, and Russian fleet destroyed the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Navarino.
In 1830, Britain, France, and Russia signed a treaty guaranteeing an independent kingdom of Greece. By the
1830s, the old order, carefully arranged at the Congress of Vienna, was breaking down. Revolutionary zeal
swept across Europe. Liberals and nationalists throughout Europe were openly revolting against conservative
governments. Nationalist riots broke out against Dutch rule in the Belgian city of Brussels. In October 1830,
the Belgians declared their independence from Dutch control. In Italy, nationalists worked to unite the many
separate states on the Italian peninsula. Some were independent. Others were ruled by Austria, or by the
pope. Eventually, Prince Metternich sent Austrian troops to restore order in Italy.
Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte who was elected President of the
French Second Republic in 1848. In 1852 he took the title of
Emperor Napoleon III with popular support. As France’s emperor,
Louis-Napoleon built railroads, encouraged industrialization, and
promoted ambitious public works programs. Gradually, as a result
of these changes, unemployment decrease and France experienced
In 1830, France’s King Charles X tried to stage a return to absolute monarchy. The attempt sparked riots that forced
Charles to flee to Great Britain. He was replaced by Louis-Philippe, who had long supported liberal reforms in France.
However, in 1848, after a reign of almost 18 years, Louis-Philippe fell from popular favor. Once again, a Paris mob
overturned a monarchy and established a republic. The provisional government in France also set up national
workshops to provide work for the unemployed. From March to June, the number of unemployed enrolled in the
national workshops rose from about 66,000 to almost 120,000. This emptied the treasury and frightened the
moderates, who reacted by closing the workshop on June 21st, 1848. The workers refused to accept this decision
and poured into the streets. In four days of bitter and bloody fighting, government forces crushed the working-class
revolt. Thousands were killed and thousands more were sent to the French prison colony of Algeria in northern Africa.
The new constitution, ratified on November 4, 1848, set up a republic called the Second Republic. The Second
Republic had a single legislature by universal male suffrage. A president, also chosen by universal male suffrage,
served for four years. In the elections for the presidency in December 1848, Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
(called Louis-Napoleon), the nephew of the famous French ruler, won a resounding victory.
Closure Question #2: Why did some liberals disapprove of the way LouisNapoleon ruled France after the uprisings of 1848?
Czar of Russia during the mid to late 1800s who made reforms to Russian
society, such as emancipation (freedom) for serfs and providing land for
peasants by buying it from landlords.
Nationalism, a major force in 19th century Europe, presented special problems for the Austrian Empire. That
was because the empire contained so many different ethnic groups, and many were campaigning for
independence. After the Hapsburg rulers crushed the revolutions of 1848 and 1849, they restored
centralized, autocratic government to the empire. Austria’s defeat at the hands of the Prussians in 1866,
however, forced the Austrians to make concessions to the fiercely nationalist Hungarians. The result was the
compromise of 1867, which created a dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Each of these two components had
its own constitution, its own legislature, its own government bureaucracy, and its own capital; Vienna for
Austria and Budapest for Hungary.
In 1856 the Russians suffered a humiliating defeat in the Crimean War. Even staunch conservatives realized
that Russia was falling hopelessly behind the western European powers. Serfdom, the largest problem in
czarist Russia, was a complicated issue that affected the economic, social, and political future of Russia. On
March 3, 1861, Czar Alexander II issued an emancipation edict, freeing all serfs in Russia. Alexander II
attempted other reforms as well, but he soon found that he could please no one. Reformers wanted more
changes and a faster pace for change. Conservatives thought that the czar was trying to destroy the basic
institutions of Russian society.
A group of radicals assassinated Alexander II in 1881. His son, Alexander III,
became the successor to the throne. Alexander III turned against reform and
returned to the old methods of repression.
Closure Question #3: Why did Alexander III of Russia turn against the
reforms of his father? (At least 1 sentence)
Closure Assignment #2
Answer the following questions based on what
you have learned from Chapter 24, Section 2:
1. Why might liberals and radicals join
together in a nationalist cause?
2. Why did some liberals disapprove of the
way Louis-Napoleon ruled France after
the uprisings of 1848?
3. Why did Alexander III of Russia turn
against the reforms of his father? (At
least 1 sentence)
The goal of the Romanov Dynasty beginning in the 1860s to force
Russian culture on all the ethnic groups within the Russian Empire.
School instruction was required to be entirely in Russian, even in
the primary grades, and conversion to the Eastern Orthodox
Church was encouraged. This policy actually strengthened ethnic
nationalist feelings and helped to disunify Russia.
During the 1800s, nationalism fueled efforts to build nation-states. Nationalists were not loyal to kings, but to
their people – to those who shared common bonds. Nationalism believed that people of a single “nationality”,
or ancestry, should unite under a single government. However, people who wanted to restore the old order
from before the French Revolution saw nationalism as a force for disunity. Gradually, authoritarian rulers
began to see that nationalism could also unify masses of people. They soon began to use nationalist feelings
for their own purposes. They built nation-states in areas where they remained firmly in control.
Three aging empires – The Austrian Empire of the Hapsburgs, the Russian Empire of the Romanovs, and the
Ottoman Empire of the Turks – contained a mixture of ethnic groups. Control of land and ethnic groups
moved back and fort between these empires, depending on victories or defeats in war and on royal
marriages. When nationalism emerged in the 19th century, ethnic unrest threatened and eventually toppled
these empires. In addition to the Russians themselves, the czar ruled over 22 million Ukrainians, 8 million
Poles, and smaller numbers of Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, Finns, Jews, Romanians, Georgians,
Armenians, Turks, and others. Each group had its own culture. The weakened czarist empire finally could not
withstand the double shock of World War I and the communist revolution. The last Romanov czar gave up
his power in 1917.
Closure Question #1: How can nationalism be both a unifying and a
disunifying force? (At least 1 sentence)
Camillo di Cavour
Prime minister to King Victor Emmanuel II of the Italian province
of Sardinia. A cunning statesman, Cavour used skillful diplomacy
and well-chosen alliances to gain control of northern Italy for
Sardinia. Through an alliance with Louis Napoleon of France in
1858, Sardinia succeeded in driving Austria from northern Italy.
Italian nationalists looked for leadership from the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, the largest and most
powerful of the Italian states. The kingdom had adopted a liberal constitution in 1848. So, to the liberal
Italian middle classes, unification under Piedmont-Sardinia seemed a good plan. In 1852, Sardinia’s king,
Victor Emmanuel II, named Count Camillo di Cavour as his prime minister. Cavour was a cunning statesman
who worked tirelessly to expand Piedmont-Sardinia’s power. Using skillful diplomacy and well-chosen
alliances he set about gaining control of northern Italy for Sardinia.
Cavour realized that the greatest roadblock to annexing northern Italy was Austria. In 1858, the French
emperor Napoleon III agreed to help drive Austria out of the northern Italian provinces. Cavour then
provoked a war with the Austrians. A combined French-Sardinian army succeeded in taking all of northern
Italy, except Venetia. As Cavour was uniting northern Italy, he secretly started helping nationalist rebels in
southern Italy. In May 1860, a small army of Italian nationalists led by a bold and visionary soldier, Giuseppe
Garibaldi, captured Sicily. In battle, Garibaldi always wore a bright red shirt, as did his followers. As a result,
they became known as the Red Shirts. From Sicily, Garibaldi and his forces crossed to the Italian mainland
and marched north. Eventually, Garibaldi agreed to unite southern areas he had conquered with the kingdom
of Piedmont-Sardinia. Cavour arranged for King Victor Emmanuel II to meet Garibaldi in Naples. “The Red
One” willingly agreed to step aside and let the Sardinian king rule.
Italian patriot who liberated Naples and Sicily from Austrian rule,
then turned over control of Southern Italy to King Victor Emmanuel
II of Sardinia in 1870, establishing a unified, independent Italy.
Piedmont is a northern Italian state which, under the leadership of King Victor Emmanuel II, made an alliance with
France in 1859 to revolt against Austrian control, establishing itself as an Independent nation. In 1850, Austria was
still the dominant power on the Italian Peninsula. After the failure of the revolution of 1848, people began to look to
the northern Italian state of Piedmont for leadership in achieving the unification of Italy. The royal house of Savoy
ruled the Kingdom of Piedmont. Included in the kingdom were Piedmont, the island of Sardinia, Nice, and Savoy. The
ruler of the kingdom, beginning in 1849, was King Victor Emmanuel II.
The king named Camillo di Cavour his prime minister in 1852. Cavour was a dedicated political leader. As prime
minister, he pursued a policy of economic expansion to increase government revenues & enable the kingdom to equip
a large army. Cavour, knew that Piedmont’s army was not strong enough to defeat the Austrians. So, he made an
alliance with the French emperor Louis-Napoleon. Cavour then provoked the Austrians into declaring war in 1859.
Following that conflict, a peace settlement gave Nice and Savoy to the French. Cavour had promised Nice and Savoy
to the French in return for making the alliance. Lombardy, which had been under Austrian control, was given to
Piedmont. Austria retained control of Venetia. Cavour’s success caused nationalists in other Italian states (Parma,
Modena, and Tuscany) to overthrow their governments & join their states to Piedmont.
Meanwhile,, in southern Italy, a new leader of Italian unification had arisen. Giuseppe Garibaldi, a dedicated Italian
patriot, raised an army of a thousand volunteers. They were called Red Shirts because of the color of their uniforms.
A branch of the Bourbon dynasty ruled the Tow Sicilies (Sicily and Naples), and a revolt had broken out in Sicily
against the king. Garibaldi’s forces landed in Sicily and, by the end of July 1860, controlled most of the island. In
August, Garibaldi and his forces crossed over to the mainland and began a victorious march up the Italian Peninsula.
Naples and the entire Kingdom of the Two Sicilies fell in early September. Garibaldi chose to turn over his conquests
to Piedmont. On March 17th, 1861, a new state of Italy was proclaimed under King Victor Emmanuel II. The task of
unification was not yet complete, however. Austria still had Venetia in the north; and Rome was under the control of
the pope, supported by French troops.
Strongly conservative members of Prussia’s wealthy landowning
class who supported King Wilhelm I in his conflict with Prussian
parliament. The liberal parliament refused Wilhelm money for
reforms that would double the strength of the army.
Like Italy, Germany also achieved national unity in the mid-1800s. Beginning in 1815, 39 German states
formed a loose grouping called the German Confederation. The Austrian Empire dominated the
confederation. However, Prussia was ready to unify all the German states. The German Confederation was
composed of 39 Independent German States, including Austria and Prussia; In May 1848 representatives
from the separate German states held an assembly in Frankfurt to prepare a constitution for a united
Germany; ultimately, however, the movement failed to gain the support needed to unify Germany in the mid19th century.
News of the 1848 revolution in France led to upheaval in other parts of Europe. The Congress of Vienna in
1815 had recognized the existence of 38 independent German states (called the German Confederation). Of
these, Austria and Prussia were the two greatest powers. The other states varied in size. In 1848, cries for
change led many German rulers to promise constitutions, a free press, jury trials, and other liberal reforms.
In May 1848, an all-German parliament called the Frankfurt Assembly, was held to fulfill a liberal and
nationalist dream – the preparation of a constitution for a new united Germany.
Closure Question #2: Why did Great Britain not join the revolutions
that spread through Europe in 1848? (At least 1 sentence)
Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck – Prime Minister of Prussia from 1860 to 1890;
Bismarck increased Prussia’s military strength and led a series of
successful military campaigns expanding Prussia’s borders, forming the
Militarism is the glorification of and reliance on the military; During the mid-1800’s Prussia was well known
for its militarism. After the Frankfurt Assembly failed to achieve German unification in 1848 and 1849,
Germans looked to Prussia for leadership in the cause of German unification. In the course of the 19th
century, Prussia had become a strong and prosperous state. Its government was authoritarian. The Prussian
king had firm control over both the government and the army. Prussia was also known for its militarism. In
the 1860s, King William I tried to enlarge the Prussian army. When the Prussian legislature refused to levy
new taxes for the proposed military changes, William I appointed a new prime minister, Count Otto von
Bismarck has often been seen as the foremost 19th century practitioners of realpolitik – the “politics of
reality”, or politics based on practical matters rather than on theory or ethics. Bismarck openly voiced his
strong dislike of anyone who opposed him. After his appointment, Bismarck ignored the legislative opposition
to the military reforms. He argued instead that “Germany does not look to Prussia’s liberalism but for her
power.” Bismarck proceeded to collect taxes and strengthen the army. From 1862 to 1866, Bismarck
governed Prussia without approval of the parliament. In the meantime, he followed an active foreign policy,
which soon led to war. After defeating Denmark with Austrian help in 1864, Prussia gained control of the
duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. Bismarck then created friction with the Austrians and forced them into a
war on June 14, 1866. The Austrians, no match for the well-disciplined Prussian army, were defeated on July
“The politics of reality”; Term used to describe tough power politics
with no room for idealism. Otto von Bismarck used realpolitik to
establish himself as the de facto military dictator of Prussia and,
eventually, the unified German states.
Bismarck purposely stirred up border conflicts with Austria over Schleswig and Holstein. The tensions
provoked Austria into declaring war on Prussia in 1866. This conflict was known as the Seven Weeks’ War.
The Prussians used their superior training and equipment to win a devastating victory. They humiliated
Austria. The Austrians lost the region of Venetia, which was given to Italy. They had to accept Prussian
annexation of more German territory. With its victory in the Seven Weeks’ War, Prussia took control of
northern Germany. For the first time, the eastern and western parts of the Prussian kingdom were joined. In
1867, the remaining states of the north joined the North German confederation, which Prussia dominated.
By 1867, a few southern German states remained independent of Prussian control. The majority of southern
Germans were Catholics. Many in the region resisted domination by Protestant Prussia. However, Bismarck
felt he could win the support of southerners if they faced a threat from outside. He reasoned that a war with
France would rally the south. Bismarck was an expert at manufacturing “incidents” to gain his ends. For
example, he created the impression that the French ambassador had insulted the Prussian king. The French
reacted to Bismarck’s deception by declaring war on Prussia on July 19, 1870. The Prussian army
immediately poured into northern France. In September 1870, the Prussian army surrounded the main
French force at Sedan. Among the 83,000 French prisoners taken was Napoleon III himself. Parisians
withstood a German siege until hunger forced them to surrender.
Closure Question #3: Many liberals wanted government by elected
parliaments. How was Bismarck’s approach to achieving his goals different?
(At least 1 sentence)
Kaiser – “Emperor”, William I of Prussia was proclaimed the Kaiser of the
Second German Empire on January 18th, 1871. Under the leadership of
William I, Germany fought a successful war against France, known as the
Franco-Prussian War, and in 1871 gained the French territories of Alsace
and Lorraine. The loss of these territories left the French burning for
revenge against Germany.
Prussia organized the German states north of the Main River into the North German Confederation. The
southern German states, which were largely Catholic, feared Protestant Prussia. However, they also feared
France, their western neighbor. As a result, they agreed to sign military alliances with Prussia for protection
against France. Prussia now dominated all of northern Germany, and the growing power and military might
of Prussia worried France. Bismarck was aware that France would never be content with a united German
state to its east because of the potential threat to French security.
In 1870, Prussia and France became embroiled in a dispute over the candidacy of a relative of the Prussian
king for the throne of Spain. Taking advantage of the situation, Bismarck goaded the French into declaring
war on Prussia on July 19th, 1870. This conflict was called the Franco-Prussian War. The French proved to be
no match for the better led and better organized Prussian forces. The southern German states honored their
military alliances with Prussia and joined the war effort against the French. Prussian armies advanced into
France. At Sedan, on September 2, 1870, an entire French army and the French ruler, Napoleon III, were
captured. Paris finally surrendered on January 28, 1871. An official peace treaty was signed in May. France
had to pay 5 billion francs (about $1 billion dollars) and give up the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine to the
new German state. Even before the war had ended, the southern German states had agreed to enter the
North German Confederation. On January 18, 1871, Bismarck and 600 German princes, nobles, and generals
filled the hall of Mirrors in the palace of Versailles, 12 miles outside Paris. William I of Prussia was proclaimed
Closure Assignment #3
Answer the following questions based on what
you have learned from Chapter 24, Section 3:
1. How can nationalism be both a unifying and a
disunifying force? (At least 1 sentence)
2. Why did Great Britain not join the revolutions
that spread through Europe in 1848? (At least
3. Many liberals wanted government by elected
parliaments. How was Bismarck’s approach to
achieving his goals different? (At least 1
Romanticism – Intellectual movement of the late 18th and early 19th
centuries which emphasized feelings, emotion, and imagination as sources
Ludwig von Beethoven was a musician and composer who bridged the gap between classical and romantic
music. The Enlightenment had stressed reason as the chief means for discovering truth. The romantics
emphasized feelings, emotion and imagination. Romantics believed that emotion and sentiment were only
understandable to the person experiencing them. In their novels, romantic writers created figures who were
often misunderstood and rejected by society but who continued to believe in their own worth through their
inner feelings. Romantics also valued individualism, the belief in the uniqueness of each person. Many
romantics rebelled against middle-class conventions. Male romantics grew long hair and beards and both
men and women wore outrageous clothes to express their individuality.
Many romantics had a passionate interest in the past ages, especially in the medieval era. They felt it had a
mystery and interest in the soul that their own industrial age did not. Romantic architecture revived medieval
styles and built castles, cathedrals, city halls, parliamentary buildings, and even railway stations in a style
called neo-Gothic. The British Houses of Parliament in London are a prime example of this architectural style.
Romantic artists shared at least two features. First, to them, all art was a reflection of the artist’s inner
feelings. A painting should mirror the artist’s vision of the world and be the instrument of the artist’s own
imagination. Second, romantic artists abandoned classical reason for warmth and emotion. Eugene Delacroix
was one of the most famous romantic painters from France. His paintings showed two chief characteristics: a
fascination with the exotic and a passion for color. His works reflect his belief that “a painting should be a
feast to the eye.”
Closure Question #1: How are the movements of romanticism and realism
alike and different?
The belief that the world should be viewed realistically; Realism began as
a political and scientific concept but, by the mid 19th century, came to
influence literature and art as well.
Charles Dickens was a British novelist who showed the realities of life for the poor in the early Industrial Age.
Oliver Twist and David Copperfield, written by Dickens, create a vivid picture of the brutal life of London’s
poor so effectively that they helped inspire reform. The literary realists of the mid-19th century rejected
romanticism. They wanted to write about ordinary characters from life, not romantic heroes in exotic
settings. They also tried to avoid emotional language by using precise description. They preferred novels to
poems. Many literary realists combined their interest in everyday life with an examination of social issues.
These artists expressed their social views through their characters.
The French author Gustave Flaubert, who was a leading novelist of the 1850s and 1860s, perfected the
realist novel. His work Madame Bovary presents a critical description of small-town life in France. In Great
Britain, Charles Dickens became a huge success with novels that showed the realities of life for the poor in
the early Industrial Age. In art, too, realism became dominant after 1850. Realist artists sought to show the
everyday life of ordinary people and the world of nature with photographic realism. The French painter
Gustave Courbet was the most famous artist of the realist school. He loved to portray scenes from everyday
life. His subjects were factory workers and peasants. “I have never seen either angels or goddesses, so I am
not interested in painting them,” Courbet once commented. There were those who objected to Courbet’s
“cult of ugliness” and who found such scenes of human misery scandalous. To Courbet, however, no subject
was too ordinary, too harsh, or too ugly.
Closure Question #1: How are the movements of romanticism and realism
alike and different?
Closure Question #2: How might a realist novel bring about changes in
Artistic movement in which artists try to show their impression of a
subject or a moment in time. Fascinated by light, impressionist
artists used pure, shimmering colors to capture a moment.
Louis Pasteur was a French biologist who proposed the germ theory of disease. Pasteur also developed a
method to eliminate bacteria in milk which is known as Pasteurization. Secularization is indifference to or
rejection of religion in the affairs of the world; As a result of scientific advances in the 19th century many
people became less devoted to religious faith. Like the visual arts, the literary arts were deeply affected by
romanticism and reflected a romantic interest in the past. Sir Walter Scott’s Ivanhoe, for example, a bestseller in the early 1800s, told of clashes between knights in medieval England. Many romantic writers chose
medieval subjects and created stories that expressed their strong nationalism. An attraction of the exotic
and unfamiliar gave rise to Gothic literature. Chilling examples are Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein in Britain and
Edgar Allan Poe’s short stories of horror in the United States.
The Scientific Revolution had created a modern, rational approach to the study of the natural world. For a
long time, only the educated elite understood its importance. With the Industrial Revolution, however, came
a heightened interest in scientific research. By the 1830s, new discoveries in science had led to many
practical benefits that affected all Europeans. Science came to have a greater and greater impact on people.
In biology, the Frenchman Louis Pasteur proposed the germ theory of disease, which was crucial to the
development of modern scientific medical practices. In chemistry, the Russian Dmitry Mendeleyev in the
1800s classified all the material elements then known on the basis of their atomic weights. In Great Britain,
Michael Faraday put together a primitive generator that laid the foundation for the use of electric current.
Dramatic material benefits such as these led Europeans to have a growing faith in science. This faith, in turn,
undermined the religious faith of many people. It is no accident that the 19th century was an age of
increasing secularization. For many people, truth was now to be found in science and the concrete material
existence of humans.
Closure Question #3: What was the goal of impressionist painters?
Closure Assignment #4
Answer the following questions based on what
you have learned from Chapter 24, Section 4:
1. How are the movements of romanticism and
realism alike and different?
2. How might a realist novel bring about changes
in society? Describe the ways by which this
3. What was the goal of impressionist painters?
Term referring to the greatly increased output of machine-made
goods that began in England in the middle 1700s.
The assembly line is an efficient manufacturing method pioneered by American Henry Ford in 1913;
Assembly Line production places a product on a conveyor belt and has individuals at various stations along
the belt responsible to attach one specific part. Mass Production is a business practice of producing large
quantities of identical products which can be made quickly and cheaply.
By the 1880s, streetcars and subways powered by electricity had appeared in major European cities.
Electricity transformed the factory as well. Conveyor belts, cranes, and machines could all be powered by
electricity. With electric lights, factories could remain open 24 hours a day. The development of the internalcombustion engine, fired by oil and gasoline, provided a new source of power in transportation. This engine
gave rise to ocean liners with oil-fired engines, as well as to the airplane and the automobile. In 1903 Orville
and Wilbur Wright made the first flight in a fixed-wing plane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. In 1919 the first
regular passenger air service was established.
Industrial production grew at a rapid pace because of greatly increased sales of manufactured goods.
Europeans could afford to buy more consumer products for several reasons. Wages for workers increased
after 1870. In addition, prices for manufactured goods were lower because of reduced transportation costs.
One of the biggest reasons for more efficient production was the assembly line. In the cities, the first
department stores began to sell a new range of consumer goods. These goods – clocks, bicycles, electric
lights, and typewriters, for example – were made possible by the steel and electrical industries.
Series of laws passed by British parliament in the 1700s which required
landowners to fence off common lands. These laws forced many peasants
to move to towns, creating a labor supply for factories.
The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain in the 1780s and took several decades to spread to other
Western nations. Several factors contributed to make Great Britain the starting point. First, an agrarian
revolution beginning in the 1700s changed agricultural practices. Expansion of farmland, good weather,
improved transportation, and new crops such as the potato dramatically increased the food supply. More
people could be fed at lower prices with less labor. Now even ordinary British families could use some of their
income to buy manufactured goods.
Second, with the increased food supply, the population grew. When Parliament passed enclosure movement
laws in the 1700s, landowners fenced off common lands. This forced many peasants to move to towns,
creating a labor supply for factories. The remaining farms were larger, more efficient, with increased crop
yields. Third, Britain had a ready supply of money, or capital, to invest in new machines and factories.
Entrepreneurs found new ways to make profits in a laissez-faire market economy, ruled by supply and
demand with little government control of industry. Fourth, Britain had plentiful natural resources. The
country’s rivers provided water power for the new factories. These waterways provided a means for
transporting raw materials and finished products. Britain also had abundant supplies of coal and iron ore,
essential in manufacturing processes.
Finally, a supply of markets gave British manufacturers a ready outlet for their goods. Britain had a vast
colonial empire, and British ships could transport goods anywhere in the world. Also, because of population
growth and cheaper food at home, domestic markets increased. A growing demand for cotton cloth led
British manufacturers to look for ways to increase production.
Closure Question #1: Was the revolution in agriculture necessary to the Industrial
Improved agricultural process developed during the Industrial
Revolution. One year, for example, a farmer might plant a field
with wheat, which exhausted soil nutrients. The next year he
planted a root crop, such as turnips, to restore nutrients.
Livestock breeders improved their methods too. In the 1700s, for example, Robert Bakewell increased his
mutton (sheep meat) output by allowing only his best sheep to breed. Other farmers followed Bakewells’
lead. Between 1700 and 1786, the average weight for lambs climbed from 18 to 50 pounds. As food supplies
increased and living conditions improved, England’s population mushroomed. An increasing population
boosted the demand for food and goods such as cloth. As farmers lost their land to large enclosed farms,
many became factory workers.
By 1800, several major inventions had modernized the cotton industry. One invention led to another. In
1733, a machinist named John Kay made a shuttle that sped back and forth on wheels. This flying shuttle, a
boat-shaped piece of wood to which yarn was attached, doubled the work a weaver could do in a day.
Because spinners could not keep up with these speedy weavers, a cash prize attracted contestants to
produce a better spinning machine. Around 1764, a textile worker named James Hargreaves invented a
spinning wheel he named after his daughter. His spinning jenny allowed one spinner to work eight threads at
a time. At first, textile workers operated the flying shuttle and the spinning jenny by hand. Then, Richard
Arkwright invented the water frame in 1769. This machine used the waterpower from rapid streams to drive
spinning wheels. In 1779, Samuel Crompton combined features of the spinning jenny and the water frame to
produce the spinning mule. The spinning mule made thread that was stronger, finer, and more consistent
than earlier spinning machines. Run by waterpower, Edmund Cartwright’s power loom sped up weaving after
its invention in 1787.
Closure Question #1: Was the revolution in agriculture necessary to the Industrial
The process of developing machine production of goods. England
led the way in Industrialization, largely as a result of natural
resources such as rivers for inland transportation, harbors from
which merchant ships set sail, water power and coal to fuel
machines, and iron ore to construct machines.
Puddling – Iron making process developed by Englishman Henry Cort which used coke, which was derived
from coal, to burn away in impurities in Iron Ore. Manchester & Liverpool – In 1829 Manchester, a rich
cotton-manufacturing town, was connected with Liverpool, a thriving port, by railroad, further speeding the
production and sale of cotton cloth. As a result of the puddling process, the British iron industry boomed. In
1740, Britain had produced 17,000 tons of iron. After Cort’s process came into use in the 1780s, production
jumped to nearly 70,000 tons. In 1852, Britain produced almost 3 million tons – more iron than the rest of
the combined world produced. High-quality iron was used to build new machines, especially trains.
The factory was another important element in the Industrial Revolution. From its beginning, the factory
created a new labor system. Factory owners wanted to use their new machines constantly. So, workers were
forced to work in shifts to keep the machines producing at a steady rate. Early factory workers came from
rural areas where they were used to periods of inactivity. Factory owners wanted workers to work without
stopping. They disciplined workers to a system of regular hours and repetitive tasks. Anyone who came to
work late was fined or quickly fired for misconduct, especially for drunkenness. One early industrialist said
that his aim was “to make the men into machines that cannot err.” Discipline of factory workers, especially of
children, was often harsh. Children were often beaten with a rod or whipped to keep them at work.
In the 18th century, more efficient means of moving resources and goods developed. Railroads were
particularly important to the success of the Industrial Revolution. Richard Threvithick, an English engineer,
built the first steam locomotive. In 1804, Threvithick’s locomotive ran on an industrial rail-line in Britain. It
pulled 10 tons of ore and 70 people 5 miles per hour. Better locomotives soon followed. In 1813, George
Stephenson built the Blucher, the first successful flanged-wheel locomotive. With its flanged wheels, the
Blucher ran on top of the rails instead of in sunken tracks.
Factors of Production
Resources needed to produce goods and services that the
Industrial Revolution required. These include land, labor, and
The success of Stockton & Darlington, the first true railroad, encouraged investors to link by rail Manchester and
Liverpool. In 1829, the investors sponsored a competition to find the most suitable locomotive to do the job. They
selected the Rocket. The Rocket sped along at 16 miles per hour while pulling a 40 ton train. Within 20 years,
locomotives were able to reach 50 miles per hour. In 1840, Britain had almost 2,000 miles of railroads. In 1850, more
than 6,000 miles of railroad track crisscrossed much of that country. Railroad expansion caused a ripple effect in the
economy. Building railroads created new jobs for farm laborers and peasants. Less expensive transportation led to
lower priced goods, thus creating larger markets. More sales meant more factories and more machinery. Business
owners could reinvest their profits in new equipment, adding to the growth of the economy. This type of regular,
ongoing economic growth became a basic feature of the new industrial economy. The Industrial Revolution spread to
the rest of Europe at different times and speeds. First to be industrialized in continental Europe were Belgium,
France, and the German states. In these places, governments actively encouraged industrialization. For example,
governments provided funds to build roads, canals, and railroads. By 1850, a network of iron rails spread across
An Industrial Revolution also occurred in the United States. In 1800, 5 million people lived in the U.S., and 6 out of
every 7 American workers were farmers. No city had more than 100,000 people. By 1860, the population had grown
to 30 million people. Cities had also grown. Nine cities had populations over 100,000. Only 50% of American workers
were farmers. A large country, the U.S. needed a good transportation system to move goods across the nation.
Thousands of miles of roads and canals were built to link east and west. Robert Fulton built the first paddle-wheel
steamboat, the Clermont, in 1807. Most important in the development of an American transportation system was the
railroad. It began with fewer than 100 miles of track in 1830. By 1860, about 30,000 miles of railroad track covered
the U.S. The country became a single massive market for the manufactured goods of the Northeast. Labor for the
growing number of factories in the Northeast came chiefly from the farm population. Women and girls made up a
large majority of the workers in large textile (cotton and wool) factories.
Large buildings in which merchants housed machines. Wealthy
British textile merchants built their factories near waterways
because most of the early machines ran on waterpower.
Cottage Industry – The two-step process of manufacturing cotton cloth; first, spinners made cotton thread
from raw cotton; second, weavers wove the cotton into cloth. Prior to the 18th century this process was
carried out mostly by women in rural cottages. James Watt – Scottish engineer who, in 1782, made changes
that enabled steam engines to drive machinery which could spin and weave cotton, increasing cloth
production dramatically. As a result of Watt’s invention, cotton mills using steam engines were found all over
Britain. Because steam engines were fired by coal, not powered by water, they did not need to be located
near rivers. British cotton cloth production increased dramatically. In 1760, Britain had imported 2.5 million
pounds of raw cotton, most of it spun on machines. By 1840, 366 million pounds of cotton were imported. By
this time, cotton cloth was Britain’s most valuable product. Sold everywhere in the world, British cotton goods
were produced mainly in factories.
The steam engine was crucial to Britain’s Industrial Revolution. For fuel, the engine depended on coal, a
substance that seemed then to be unlimited in quantity. The success of the steam engine increased the need
for coal and led to an expansion in coal production. New processes using coal aided the transformation of
another industry – the iron industry. Britain’s natural resources included large supplies of iron ore. At the
beginning of the 18th century, the basic process of producing iron had changed little since the Middle Ages. A
better quality of iron was produced in the 1780’s when Henry Cort developed a process called puddling.
England’s cotton came from plantations in the American South in the 1790s. Removing seeds from the raw
cotton by hand was hard work. In 1793, an American inventor named Eli Whitney invented a machine to
speed the chore. His cotton gin multiplied the amount of cotton that could be cleaned. American cotton
production skyrocketed from 1.5 million pounds in 1790 to 85 million pounds in 1810.
Closure Question #2: Analyze the causes and effects of the Industrial Revolution.
(At least 2 causes and 2 effects)
Entrepreneur – An individual who establish or invest in businesses using
capital in order to make profits. During the Industrial Revolution
entrepreneurs came to dominate the economy as government’s supported
laissez-faire policies, avoiding regulation of business.
Capital is money which is invested in a business and used to buy land, natural resources, machines, tools,
advertising, and to pay workers. In the 18th century, Great Britain had surged way ahead in the production of
inexpensive cotton goods. The manufacture of cotton cloth was a two-step process. First, spinners made
cotton thread from raw cotton. Then, weavers wove the cotton thread into cloth on looms. In the 18th
century, individuals spun the thread and then wove the cloth in their rural cottages. This production was thus
called a cottage industry.
A series of technological advances in the 18th century made cottage industry inefficient. First, the invention of
the “flying shuttle” made weaving faster. Now, weavers needed more thread from spinners because they
could produce cloth at a faster rate. In 1764 James Hargreaves had invented a machine called the spinning
jenny, which met this need. Other inventions made similar contributions. The spinning process became much
faster. In fact, spinners produced thread faster than weavers could use it.
Another invention made it possible for the weaving of cloth to catch up with the spinning of thread. This was
a water-powered loom invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1787. It now became more efficient to bring
workers to the new machines and have them work in factories near streams and rivers, which were used to
power many of the early machines. The cotton industry became even more productive when the steam
engine was improved in the 1760s by James Watt, a Scottish engineer. In 1782, Watt made changes that
enabled the engine to drive machinery.
Closure Question #3: What effect did entrepreneurs have upon the Industrial
Closure Assignment #5
Answer the following questions based on what
you have learned from Chapter 25, Section 1:
1. Was the revolution in agriculture necessary
to the Industrial Revolution? Explain.
2. Analyze the causes and effects of the
Industrial Revolution. (At least 2 causes
and 2 effects)
3. What effect did entrepreneurs have upon
the Industrial Revolution?
City building and the movement of people to cities. Between 1800
and 1850, the number of European cities boasting more than
100,000 inhabitants rose from 22 to 47, with most urban areas
doubling, and some even quadrupling, in population.
By the end of the 19th century, the new industrial world had led to the emergence of a mass society in which the
condition of the majority – the lower classes – was demanding some government attention. Governments now had to
consider how to appeal to the masses, rather than just to the wealthier citizens. Housing was one area of great
concern. Crowded quarters could easily spread disease. An even bigger threat to health was public sanitation. With
few jobs available in the countryside, people from rural areas migrated to cities to find work in the factories or, later,
in blue-collar industries. As a result of this vast migration, more and more people lived in cities. In the 1850s, urban
dwellers made up about 40% of the English population, 15% of France, 10% of Prussia (Prussia was the largest
German state), and 5% of Russia. By 1890, urban dwellers had increased to about 60% in England, 25% in France,
30% in Prussia, and 10% in Russia. In industrialized nations, cities grew tremendously. Between 1800 and 1900 the
population of London grew from 960,000 to 6,500,000.
Cities also grew faster in the second half of the 19th century because of improvements in public health and sanitation.
Thus, more people could survive living close together. Improvements came only after reformers in the 1840s urged
local governments to do something about the filthy living conditions that caused disease. For example, cholera had
ravaged Europe in the early 1830s and 1840s. Contaminated water in the overcrowded cities had spread the deadly
disease. On the advice of reformers, city governments created boards of health to improve housing quality. Medical
officers and building inspectors inspected dwellings for public health hazards. Building regulations required running
water and internal drainage systems for new buildings.
Closure Question #1: How did industrialization contribute to city growth?
Closure Question #2: How were class tensions
affected by the Industrial Revolution?
The new middle class transformed the social structure of Great Britain. In
the past, landowners and aristocrats had occupied the top position in British
society. With most of the wealth, they wielded the social and political power.
Now some factory owners, merchants, and bankers grew wealthier than the
landowners and aristocrats. Yet important social distinctions divided the two
wealthy classes. Landowners looked down on those who had made their
fortunes in the “vulgar” business world. Not until the late 1800s were rich
entrepreneurs considered the social equals of the lords of the countryside.
Gradually, a larger middle class – neither rich nor poor – emerged. The
upper middle class consisted of government employees, doctors, lawyers,
and managers of factories, mines, and shops. The lower middle class
included factory overseers and such skilled workers as toolmakers,
mechanical drafters, and printers. These people enjoyed a comfortable
standard of living. During the years 1800 to 1850, however, laborers, or the
working class, saw little improvement in their living and working conditions.
They watched their livelihoods disappear as machines replaced them. In
frustration, some smashed the machines they thought were putting them
out of work.
Social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business
people, and wealthy farmers. As a result of the Industrial
Revolution the middle class grew dramatically, transforming
western Europe from a society dominated by aristocratic
landowners to one in which business people came to dominate the
social and political landscape.
The family was the central institution of middle-class life. With fewer children in the family, mothers could devote
more time to child care and domestic leisure. The middle-class family fostered an ideal of togetherness. The
Victorians created the family Christmas with its Yule log, tree, songs, and exchange of gifts. By the 1850s, 4 th of July
in the United States had changed from wild celebrations to family picnics. The lives of working class women were
different from those of their middle-class counterparts. Most working class women had to earn money to help support
their families. While their earnings averaged only a small percentage of their husbands’ earnings, the contributions of
working-class women made a big difference in the economic survival of their families. Daughters in working-class
families were expected to work until they married. After marriage, many women often did small jobs at home to
support the family.
For working-class women who worked away from the home, child care was a concern. Older siblings, other relatives,
or neighbors often provided child care while the mother worked. Some mothers sent their children to dame schools in
which other women provided in-home child care, as well as some basic literacy instruction. For the children of the
working classes, childhood was over by the age of 9 or 10. By this age, children often became apprentices or were
employed in odd jobs. Between 1890 and 1914, however, family patterns among the working class began to change.
Higher-paying jobs in heavy industry and improvements in the standard of living made it possible for working-class
families to depend on the income of husbands alone. By the early 20th century, some working-class mothers could
afford to stay at home, following the pattern of middle-class women. At the same time, working class families aspired
to buy new consumer products, such as sewing machines and cast-iron stoves.
Closure Question #3: The Industrial Revolution has been described as a mixed
blessing. Do you agree or disagree? Support your answer with specific facts.
Closure Assignment #6
Answer the following questions based on what
you have learned from Chapter 25, Section 2:
1. How did industrialization contribute to city
2. How were class tensions affected by the
3. The Industrial Revolution has been described
as a mixed blessing. Do you agree or
disagree? Support your answer with specific
Closure Question #1: Read the quote from Lucy
Larcom. Do you think her feelings about working
in the mill are typical? Why or why not?
“Country girls were naturally independent, and
the feeling that at this new work the few hours
they had of everyday leisure were entirely their
own was a satisfaction to them. They preferred
it to going out as “hired help”. It was like a
young man’s pleasure in entering upon business
for himself. Girls had never tried that
experiment before, and they liked it.”
–Lucy Larcom, A New England Girlhood
Closure Question #2: Why was Britain unable to
keep industrial secrets way from other nations?
The United States possessed the same resources that allowed Britain to
mechanize its industries. America had fast-flowing rivers, rich deposits of
coal and iron ore, and a supply of laborers made up of farm workers and
immigrants. During the War of 1812, Britain blockaded the United States,
trying to keep it from engaging in international trade. This blockade forced
the young country to use its own resources to develop independent
industries. Those industries would manufacture the goods the United States
could longer import.
As in Britain, industrialization in the United States began in the textile
industry. Eager to keep the secrets of industrialization to itself, Britain had
forbidden engineers, mechanics, and toolmakers to leave the country. In
1789, however, a young British mill worker named Samuel Slater emigrated
to the United States. There, Slater built a spinning machine from memory
and a partial design. The following year, Moses Brown opened the first
factory in the United States to house Slater’s machines in Pawtucket, Rhode
Island. But the Pawtucket factory mass-produced only part of finished cloth,
Stock / Corporation
Stock – Certain rights of ownership of a business which were sold
by entrepreneurs in order to raise money. People who bought stock
became part owners of the business and shared in both the profits
and losses of the business.
Corporation – A business owned by stockholders who are not
personally responsible for the debts of the business. Corporations
were able to raise large amounts of capital needed to invest in
In 1813, Francis Cabot Lowell of Boston and four other investors revolutionized the American textile industry. They mechanized
every stage in the manufacture of cloth. Their weaving factory in Waltham, Massachusetts, earned them enough money to
fund a larger operation in another Massachusetts town. When Lowell died, the remaining partners named the town after him.
By the late 1820s, Lowell, Massachusetts, had become a booming manufacturing center and a model for other such towns.
Thousands of young single women flocked from their rural homes to work as mill girls in factory towns. There, they could make
higher wages and have some independence. However, to ensure proper behavior, they were watched closely inside and
outside the factory by their employers. The mill girls toiled more than 12 hours a day, 6 days a week, for decent wages. For
some, the mill job was an alternative to being a servant and was often the only other job open to them. Textiles led the way,
but clothing manufacture and shoemaking also underwent mechanization. Especially in the Northeast, skilled workers and
farmers had formerly worked at home. Now they labored in factories in towns and cities such as Waltham, Lowell, and
The Northeast experienced much industrial growth in the early 1800s. Nonetheless, the United States remained primarily
agricultural until the Civil War ended in 1865. During the last third of the 1800s, the country experienced a technological boom.
As in Britain, a umber of causes contributed to the boom. These included a wealth of natural resources, among them oil, coal,
and iron; a burst of inventions, such as the electric light bulb, and the telephone; and a swelling urban population that
consumed new manufactured goods.
Closure Question #3: What was the most
significant effect of the Industrial Revolution?
Industrialization widened the wealth gap between industrialized
and nonindustrialized countries, even while it strengthened their
economic ties. To keep factories running and workers fed,
industrialized countries required a steady supply of raw materials
from less-developed lands. In turn, industrialized countries viewed
poor countries as markets for their manufactured products.
Britain led in exploiting its overseas colonies for resources and
markets. Soon other European countries, the United States, Russia,
and Japan followed Britain’s lead, seizing colonies for their
economic resources. Imperialism, the policy of extending one
country’s rule over many other lands, gave even more power and
wealth to these already wealthy nations. Imperialism was born out
of the cycle of industrialization, the need for resources to supply
the factories of Europe, and the development of new markets
around the world.
Closure Assignment #7
Answer the following questions based on what
you have learned from Chapter 25, Section 3:
1. Read the quote from Lucy Larcom. Do you
think her feelings about working in the mill are
typical? Why or why not?
2. Why was Britain unable to keep industrial
secrets way from other nations?
3. What was the most significant event of the
“To let people do what they want”; Economic belief that
governments should not interrupt the free play of natural economic
forces by imposing regulations but instead should leave the
Laissez-faire economics stemmed from French economic philosophers of the Enlightenment. They criticized
the idea that nations grow wealthy by placing heavy tariffs on foreign goods. In fact, they argued,
government regulations only interfered with the production of wealth. These philosophers believed that if
government allowed free trade – the flow of commerce in the world market without government regulation –
the economy would prosper. Adam Smith, a professor at the University of Glasgow, Scotland, defended the
idea of a free economy, or free markets, in his 1776 book The Wealth of Nations. According to Smith,
economic liberty guaranteed economic progress. As a result, government should not interfere. Smith’s
arguments rested on what he called the three natural laws of economics: 1) The law of self –interest People work for their own good. 2) The law of competition – Competition forces people to make a better
product. 3) The law of supply and demand – Enough goods would be produced at the lowest possible price
to met demand in a market economy.
Smith’s basic ideas were supported by British economists Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo. Like Smith,
they believed that natural laws governed economic life. Their important ideas were the foundation of laissezfaire capitalism. Capitalism is an economic system in which the factors of production are privately owned and
money is invested in business ventures to make a profit. These ideas also helped bring about the Industrial
Revolution. In An Essay on the Principle of Population, written in 1798, Thomas Malthus argued that
population tended to increase more rapidly than food supply. Without wars and epidemics to kill off the extra
people, most were destined to be poor and miserable. The predictions of Malthus seemed to becoming true
in the 1840s.
Adam Smith – Scottish economist and philosophe and supporter of
Laissez-Faire economics; Smith’s The Wealth of Nations, published
in 1776, argues that governments should not interfere in economic
The Physiocrats and Scottish philosopher Adam Smith have been viewed as the founders of the modern
social science of economics. The Physiocrats, a French group, were interested in identifying the natural
economic laws that governed human society. They maintained that if individuals were free to pursue their
own economic self-interest, all society would benefit.
The best statement of laissez-faire was made in 1776 by Adam Smith. Like the Physiocrats, Smith believed
that the state should not interfere in economic matters. Indeed, Smith gave to government only 3 basic roles.
First, it should protect society from invasion (the function of the army). Second, the government should
defend citizens from injustice (the function of the police). And finally, it should keep up certain public works
that private individuals alone could not afford – roads and canals, for example – but which are necessary for
social interaction and trade.
“No society can surely be happy, of which the far greater part of the members are poor and miserable.”
Someone reading this quote might think it originated with an American patriot or a French revolutionary.
However, it actually came from Adam Smith, widely regarded as “the father of capitalism”. Besides being the
architect of the laissez-faire doctrine of government noninterference with commerce, and an opponent of
heavy government taxation, Smith was also an outspoken advocate for ethical standards in society. His
friends included Voltaire, Benjamin Franklin, and David Hume, three of the late 18th century’s most
An economic system based on industrial production which created
two new social classes – the industrial middle class and working
class – made up of people involved in factory labor.
In the United States, factory workers sometimes sought entire families, including children, to work in their factories. One
advertisement in the town of Utica, New York, read: “Wanted: A few sober and industrious families of at least 5 children each,
over the age of 8 years, are wanted at the cotton factory in Whitestown. Widows with large families would do well to attend this
notice.” European population stood at an estimated 140 million by 1750. By 1850, the population had almost doubled to 266
million. One reason death rates declined was better-fed people were more resistant to disease. Famine, with the exception of the
Irish potato famine, seemed to have disappeared from Western Europe. Many thought population growth led to economic growth.
In 1798, the economist Thomas Malthus published An Essay on the Principle of Population about poverty and population growth.
According to his theory, when there is an increase in the food supply, the population tends to increase too fast for the food supply
to keep up, leading to famine, disease, and war.
Famine and poverty were 2 factors in global migration and urbanization. Almost a
million people died during the Irish potato famine, and poverty led a million more to
migrate to the Americas. The enclosure laws forced farmers to migrate from the
countryside looking for work. Industrialization also spurred urbanization as large
numbers of people migrated to cities to work in factories. In 1800, Great Britain had
one major city, London, with a population of about 1 million. 6 cities had populations
between 50,000 and 100,000. By 1850, London’s population had swelled to about 2.5
million. 9 cities had populations over 100,000 and 18 cities had populations between
50,000 and 100,000. Also, over 50% of the population lived in towns and cities.
Closure Question #1 Summarize the population growth of Great Britain’s cities by
using a chart containing the following information: a) London’s Population in 1800 &
1850; b) # of cities with population over 100,000 in 1800 & 1850; c) # of cities with
population between 50,000 & 100,000 in 1800 & 1850.
Philosophy introduced by English philosopher Jeremy Bentham in
the late 1700s. Bentham argued that people should judge ideas,
institutions, and actions on the basis of their utility, or usefulness.
He believed that the government should try to promote the
greatest good for the greatest number of people while individuals
should be free to pursue his or her own advantage without
interference from the government.
John Stuart Mill, a philosopher and economist, led the utilitarian movement in the 1800s. Mill came to
question unregulated capitalism. He believed it was wrong that workers should lead depraved lives that
sometimes bordered on starvation. Mill wished to help ordinary working people with policies that would lead
to a more equal division of profits. He also favored a cooperative system of agriculture and women’s rights,
including the right to vote. Mill called for the government to do away with great differences in wealth.
Utilitarians also pushed for reform in the legal and prison systems and in education.
Other reformers took an even more active approach. Shocked by the misery and poverty of the working
class, a British factory owner named Robert Owen improved working conditions for his employees. Near his
cotton mill in New Lanark, Scotland, Owen built houses, which he rented at low rates. He prohibited children
under ten from working in the mills and provided free schooling. Then, in 1824, he traveled to the United
States. He founded a cooperative community called New Harmony in Indiana, in 1825. He intended this
community to be a utopia, or perfect living place. New Harmony lasted only three years but inspired the
founding of other communities.
Economic system in which society, usually in the form of the
government, owns and controls some means of production, such as
factories & utilities. Socialists believe that this system would allow
wealth to be distributed more equally to everyone.
Robert Owen was a British utopian socialist in the early 1800s; Owen believed that humans would show their
natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment and created communities in England and the
United States based on socialist ideas. The Industrial Revolution created a working class that faced wretched
working conditions. Work hours ranged from 12 to 16 hours a day, 6 days a week. There was no security of
employment and no minimum wage. Conditions in coal mines and cotton mills were especially harsh. Coal
miners faced the danger of cave-ins, explosions, and gas fumes which led worker’s to have deformed bodies
and ruined lungs. Cotton millers worked 14 hour days, locked up in 80 to 84 degree heat.
The transition to factory work was not easy. Although workers’ lives eventually improved, they suffered
terribly during the early period of industrialization. Their family life was disrupted, they were separated from
the countryside, their hours were long, and their pay was low. Some reformers opposed such a destructive
capitalistic system and advocated socialism. Early socialists wrote books about the ideal society that might be
created. In this hypothetical society, workers could use their abilities and everyone’s needs would be met.
Later socialists said these were impractical dreams. Karl Marx contemptuously labeled the earlier reformers
German socialist who wrote The Communist Manifesto in 1848; Marx
blamed capitalism for the horrible conditions suffered by the lower class
and argued that only a classless society in which all people had equal
possessions could be free from conflict. Marx believed that the
“Bourgeoisie” (Middle Class) acted as the oppressors of the “Proletariat”
Marx believed that all of world history was a “history of class struggles.” According to Marx, oppressor and oppressed have
always “stood in constant opposition to one another.” One group – the oppressors – owned the means of production, such as
land, raw materials, money, and so forth. This gave them the power to control government and society. The other group, who
owned nothing and who depended on the owners for the means of production, was the oppressed. In the industrial societies of
Marx’s day, the class struggle continued. Around him, Marx believed he saw a society that was “more and more splitting up
into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat.
Marx predicted that the struggle between the two groups would finally lead to an open revolution. The proletariat would
violently overthrow the bourgeoisie. After the victory, the proletariat would form a dictatorship to organize the means of
production. However, since the proletariat victory would essentially abolish the economic differences that create separate social
classes, Marx believed that the final revolution would ultimately produce a classless society. The state itself, which had been a
tool of the bourgeoisie, would wither away.
Closure Question #2: Describe why Marx’s ideas would have been appealing
to the working class. (At least 1 sentence)
Western View of Marxism
A form of complete socialism in which the means of production –
all land, mines, factories, railroads, and business – would be owned
by the people and private property would cease to exist. The
establishment of pure communism was the end goal of Karl Marx’s
philosophy, as he believed that only in such a system would the
true equality all men and women be established.
Marx believed that the capitalist system, which produced the Industrial Revolution, would eventually destroy
itself in the following way. Factories would drive small artisans out of business, leaving a small number of
manufacturers to control all the wealth. The large proletariat would revolt, seize the factories and mills from
the capitalists, and produce what society needed. Workers, sharing in the profits, would bring about
economic equality for al people. The workers would control the government in a “dictatorship of the
proletariat”. After a period of cooperative living and education, the state or government would wither away
as a classless society developed. Marx called this final phase pure communism.
Published in 1848, The Communist Manifesto produced few short-term results. Though widespread revolts
shook Europe during 1848 and 1849, Europe leaders eventually put down the uprisings. Only after the turn of
the century did the fiery Marxist pamphlet produce explosive results. In the 1900s, Marxism inspired
revolutionaries such as Russia’s Lenin, China’s Mao Zedong, and Cuba’s Fidel Castro. These leaders adapted
Marx’s beliefs to their own specific situations and needs. In The Communist Manifesto, Marx and Engels
stated their belief that economic forces alone dominated society. Time has shown, however, that religion,
nationalism, ethnic loyalties, and a desire for democratic reforms may be as strong influences on history as
economic forces. In addition, the gap between the rich and the poor within the industrialized countries failed
to widen in the way that Marx and Engels predicted, mostly because of the various reforms enacted by
Union / Strike
Union – Voluntary labor associations established by workers to
press for better working conditions and higher pay. The union
movement underwent slow, painful growth in Industrialized
nations, with governments generally viewing them as a threat to
social order and stability.
Strike – An organized refusal to work. When factory owners
refused the demands of a union workers could choose to go on
strike, cutting off the owners’ labor supply and, by association,
income. However, often governments and owners intervened to
break-up strikes by hiring replacement workers or, in some cases,
physically attacking strikers.
Eventually reformers and unions forced political leaders to look in to the abuses caused by industrialization.
In both Great Britain and the United States, new laws reformed some of the worst abuses of industrialization.
In the 1820s and 1830s, for example, Parliament began investigating child labor and working conditions in
factories and mines. As a result of its findings, Parliament passed the Factory Act of 1833. The new law made
it illegal to hire children under 9 years old. Children from the ages of 9 to 12 could not work more than 8
hours a day. Young people from 13 to 17 could not work more than 12 hours. In 1842, the Mines Act
prevented women and children from working underground.
Closure Question #3: What were the main problems faced by the unions
during the 1800s and how did they overcome them?
Closure Assignment #8
Answer the following questions based on what you have
learned from Chapter 25, Section 4:
Closure Question #1 Summarize the population growth
of Great Britain’s cities by using a chart containing the
following information: a) London’s Population in 1800
& 1850; b) # of cities with population over 100,000 in
1800 & 1850; c) # of cities with population between
50,000 & 100,000 in 1800 & 1850.
Describe why Marx’s ideas would have been appealing
to the working class. (At least 1 sentence)
What were the main problems faced by the unions
during the 1800s and how did they overcome them?