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Transcript Chapter-21-Absolute-Monarchs-in-Europe

Bell Work
Thursday 1/29
Look in your book beginning on page 592
and begin reading to find the answers
• 1. Why were Spanish cloth and manufactured
goods more expensive then those made
• 2. Who was considered the greatest Dutch
painter? Name one of his paintings?
• 3. What are absolute monarchs?
Absolute Monarchs in Europe
Chapter 21
Section 1-Spain’s Empire and
European Absolutism
A Powerful Spanish Empire
• Philip II– Son of Charles V
– Inherited Spain, the Spanish
Netherlands and Spain’s
American colonies
– Philip was shy, serious,
deeply religious, and
aggressive for the sake of his
A Powerful Spanish Empire
• Philip II’s Empire– Controlled Portugal’s holdings,
strongholds in Africa, India, and
the East Indies
– Received 1/4th to 1/5th of each
ships treasure
– Supported an army of 50,000
– Defended and supported
Catholicism against Muslims
Golden Age of Spanish Literature
• During the 16th and 17th century Spain
experienced a golden age in arts
• El Greco– Means “the Greek”
– Paintings represented the deep Catholic faith of
– Were often hard to understand
• Diego Velazquez– His paintings reflected the pride of the Spanish
Golden Age of Spanish Literature
• Don QuixotePublished in 1605
– Called the birth of the
modern European
– Written by Miguel de
– Story surrounds a poor
man who read to many
novels about kings,
than went crazy
The Spanish Empire Weakens
• Inflation and Taxes
– Inflation-The decline in
the value of money
– Causes of Spanish
• Population had increased
and due to the increased
need for goods merchants
raised prices
• The value of the silver
bullion had decreased
The Spanish Empire Weakens
• Making Spain’s
Enemies Rich
– Spain bought most of
their products from
France, England and the
– To finance their wars
they borrowed money
from German and
Italian bankers
The Independent Dutch Prosper
• The Netherlands won their
independence from Spain in 1579
• They had the best banks and the
best artists in Europe during the
• Rembrandt van Rijn– Painted wealthy middle-class
merchants and groups
• Famous works also included The Night
Watch and a series of paintings about
The Independent Dutch Prosper
• Dutch Trading
Empire– Had the largest fleet of
ships in the world
• 4,800 ships
– Dutch East Indian
Company• Dominated the spice
trade and the Indian
Ocean trade
Absolutism in Europe
• Absolute Monarchs– Kings or Queens held
all the power within
their states boundaries
• Divine Right– The belief that God
created the monarch
and monarchy to act as
representatives of God
Bell Work
Wednesday 2/04
Look in your book beginning on page 596
to find the answers
• 1. What declaration was made in the Edict of
• 2. What was the job of an intendant?
• 3. What was the result of the War of Spanish
Section 2-The Reign of Louis XIV
Religious Wars and Power Struggles
• Henry IV– In 1589 became the 1st
king of the Bourbon
dynasty in France
– He was decisive, fearless
in battle and a clever
– Converted to
Catholicism to make the
people of France happy
Religious Wars and Power Struggles
• Edict of Nantes–Declaration of
religious tolerance
that allowed the
Huguenots to set
up their own place
of worship
Religious Wars and Power Struggles
• Cardinal Richelieu– A strong minister appointed by
Louis XIII to compensate for his
– Took two steps to increase the
power of the Bourbon monarchy
• Moved against the Huguenots
– Felt Protestantism was an excuse for
conspiracies against the Catholic Church
• Sought to weaken the power of nobles
Writers Turn Towards Skepticism
• Skepticism– The idea that
nothing can
ever be known
for certain
• To doubt was
viewed as the
first step to
the truth
Louis XIV Comes to Power
• Louis XIV– Most powerful ruler in
French History
– Viewed the state and
himself as one and the
– His goal was to become
so strong that the nobles
could never threaten him
Louis XIV Comes to Power
• Intendants-Government agents who
collected taxes and administered justice in
France under Louis XIV
• Jean Baptiste Colbert-Minister of France
who believed they should be self sufficient
– Fan of mercantilism
– Gave tax breaks to French companies
– Recognized how vital France’s colonies
were in terms of receiving raw materials
Louis Fights Disastrous Wars
• By 1660 France had a
population of 20 million
• France’s army was superior to
the other European Countries
– The size of their army
– Their training
– Their weaponry
Louis Fights Disastrous Wars
• The War of Spanish
Succession– Lasted from 1701 to 1714
– Charles II of Spain had promised
the throne to France’s Philip of
– England, Austria, Dutch
Republic, Portugal and several
German and Italian states joined
forces to prevent the union of the
France and Spain thrones
Louis Fights Disastrous Wars
• The War of Spanish Succession
– Treaty of Utrecht-Stated that
Philip could remain king of
Spain as long as both thrones
remained separate
– England emerges as the big
• They captured the fort at
• Received permission to send
slaves to Spain’s American
• England also received Nova
Scotia and Newfoundland
(In modern day Canada)
Louis Fights Disastrous Wars
• Louis’ Death and His Legacy
– Positive Effects:
• France ranked as the best
European country in terms of art,
literature, and statesmanship
• Strongest military power in Europe
– Negative Effects:
• The Palace of Versailles plunged
France into debt
• There was resentment over high
taxes and Louis’ abuse of power
Bell Work
Thursday 2/05
Look in your book beginning on page 603
to find the answers
• 1. What were the major conflicts during the Thirty
Years’ War
• 2. How did Ferdinand II pay the 125,000 soldiers
who served in his army?
• 3. What countries were allies during the Seven
Years’ War?
Section 3-Central European
Monarchs Clash
The Thirty Years’ War
• The Thirty Years’ War
– A conflict over religion,
territory, and power among
European ruling families
that lasted from 1618 to
• It can be broken down into
two parts
– The Hapsburg Triumphs
– The Hapsburg Defeats
The Thirty Years’ War
• The Hapsburg Triumphs
– Hapsburg armies from Austria and Spain crushed
Protestant forces in Germany and those hired by
princes as well as the Czech uprising
– Ferdinand II paid his 125,000 man army by
allowing them to loot the areas they attacked
The Thirty Years’ War
• The Hapsburg Defeats– 1630 Gustavus Adolphus of
Sweden and his 23,000 man army
drove the Hapsburg army out of
– 1635 Cardinal Richelieu sent
French troops to help German
and Swedish protestants
fighting the Hapsburgs
The Thirty Years’ War
• Peace of Westphalia-1648
– Weakened the Hapsburg states of Austria
and Germany
– Awarded France German territory
– Made German princes independent of the
Holy Roman Empire
– Ended religious wars in Europe
– Created a method of negotiations for
reaching peace
States Form in Central Europe
• Economic contrasts in the West
– Serfs in the west moved to towns and
gained economic power through the
development of capitalism
– The aristocracy in Central Europe
passed laws to restrict the serfs ability
to gain freedom
• The Ottoman Empire and Holy
Roman Empire had been severely
weakened by the 1600’s
Persia Challenges Austria
• Frederick “The Great”– Loved music, philosophy and poetry
– His father feared he wasn’t militarily
savvy enough to rule
– When he and his friend ran away his
punishment was to watch his friends
– He encouraged religious tolerance, legal
reform and felt a king should act like a
father to his people
Persia Challenges Austria
• The Seven Years’ War– 1756 Frederick attacked Saxony as a result all
major European powers were now at war
Britain and Prussia on one side
Austria, France, and Russia on the other
The war was fought in Europe, India and North America
The War ended in 1763 with no major territorial
European Monarchs Timeline
Directions: Please create a timeline the included
9 important dates (3 from each section) from
Chapter 21 Sections 1-3. Make sure to include a
sentence with each date explaining it’s
European Monarchs Timeline
European Monarchs Timeline
Bell Work
Friday 2/06
Look in your book beginning on page 608
to find the answers
• 1. How did Ivan “The Terrible” deal with the
boyars during his “bad period”?
• 2. What city did Peter build as the new capital
of Russia?
• 3. Name two ways Peter tried to westernize
Section 4-Absolute Rulers of Russia
The First Czar
• Boyars-Russia’s land owning nobles
• Czar-Russian term for Caesar
• Ivan “The Terrible”– The years 1547 to 1560 are referred to as his
“Good Period”
He won great victories
Added new land to Russia
Created a code of law
Ruled Justly
The First Czar
• Ivan’s “Bad Period”
– He blamed the boyars of poisoning his
wife Anastasia
– Created a police force to hunt down
and kill those he considered traitors
– He gave the boyar’s estates to nobles
he considered loyal to him
– In 1581 Ivan killed his oldest son
during a violent fight
Peter the Great Comes to Power
• Peter “The Great”– One of Russia’s greatest
– Ruled from 1696 to 1725
• “Great Embassy”-Peters long
visit to Western Europe
– Peter’s goals were to learn
about European customs and
manufacturing techniques
Peter Rules Absolutely
• Religious differences widened the gap between
Europe and Russia
– Russians practiced Eastern Orthodox Christianity
– Western Europeans were either Catholic or
• Westernization- Peter’s goal of using western
Europe as a model for change in Russia
– This included a 200,000 man army paid for by
heavy taxes
Peter Rules Absolutely
• Peter’s plan for Westernizing Russia
– Introduced potatoes
– Started Russia’s first news paper
– Raised the social status of women by inviting them
to social gatherings
– Ordered nobles to wear western fashion
– Introduced school that taught the arts, science and
• St. Petersburg was built as Russia’s new
capital city
Bell Work
Monday 2/09
Look in your book beginning on page 615
to find the answers
• 1.Why was the death of Charles I considered
• 2. What rights were guaranteed under the
Habeas Corpus Act?
• 3. How does a constitutional monarchy differ
from an absolute monarchy?
Section 5-Parliament Limits the
English Monarchy
Monarchs Defy Parliament
• Charles I– Took the throne in
– Always seemed to
need money b/c he
was at war with
Spain and France
– Signed the Petition of
Right but ignored it
Monarchs Defy Parliament
• Petition of Right– The king would not imprison
subjects w/out due cause
– No taxes w/out Parliament’s
– Soldiers would not be housed
in private homes
– Martial law would not be
imposed during peace time
English Civil War
• English Civil War-1642 to 1649
– Parliament had passes laws to limit royal power
and Charles I tried to have Parliamentary leaders
• Cavaliers or Royalists = Those loyal to King Charles
• Puritans = Supporters of Parliament
• Ended with the beheading of Charles I
– First time a reigning monarch had faced a public
trial and execution
English Civil War
• Oliver Cromwell– By 1645 Cromwell’s New Model Army had began
defeating the Cavaliers
– In 1647 they captured King Charles and took him
• Charles's was found guilty of treason and beheaded
– 1649 Cromwell abolished the monarchy and
established a commonwealth
• Laws that supported puritan morality abolished sinful
activities such as theatre, sporting events and dancing
Restoration and Revolution
• Restoration– Period of time in which the
monarchy was restored under
Charles II
• Habeas Corpus– Passed in 1679 this law gave
prisoners' a written guarantee that
they would be brought before the
judge to specify their charges
Restoration and Revolution
• Glorious Revolution– The bloodless overthrow
of King James II in 1688
• Seven members of
Parliament invited
William and Mary to
overthrow James
• The goal was to
overthrow him for the
sake of Protestantism
– James fled to France when
William invaded
Limit’s on Monarch’s Power
• Constitutional Monarchy– Laws limited the power of rulers
– Parliament became William and Mary’s partner in
• Cabinet– Ministers/officials acting in the rulers name but
truly represented the major party in Parliament
• This was the link between the monarch and the major
Parliamentary party
Limit’s on Monarch’s Power
• Bill of Rights– Drafted in 1689 it was designed to
clarify the limits of royal power
– Listed what the ruler could not do
• No suspending parliament’s laws
• No levying taxes without a grant from
• No interference with Parliament’s
freedom of speech
• No penalty for citizens who used
petition to bring their grievances to the
Chapter 21 Review Terms
Chapter 21 Review Terms
Chapter 21 Review Terms
Chapter 21 Review Terms