Ending the Great War - Moore Public Schools

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Transcript Ending the Great War - Moore Public Schools

Ending the Great
End of 14.3 and 14.4
took place
in World
War I
1 Western European
2 Eastern European
3 Italian Front
4 Balkan Front
5 Palestine/Syria
6 Iraq
7 Arabia
8 German Togoland
9 German Camaroons
10 German East Africa
11 German Southwest
12 German Pacific Islands
United States Enters the War
Nationalism Many Americans supported
Allies due to cultural ties
Irish Americans opposed British rule of Ireland
Early in 1917, Germans announced
unrestricted submarine warfare to end the
British intercepted Zimmerman Note
Germany would help Mexico “to reconquer the
lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and
April 1917: Wilson asked Congress to declare war
on Germany
Waging Total War
To wage total war- governments had to
take a stronger role in directing the
economic and cultural lives of their people
All warring nations imposed universal
military conscription
Economic Warfare
Britain formed a blockade of the North Seastopped anything from reaching Germany
In retaliation Germany declared it would sink
all ships carrying goods to Britain- including the
Women join the fight
Nurses were on the front
US Navy “yeomanettes“
Took factory jobs men left
behind (Free a man to fight)
At the outbreak of war
women suffragists
postponed their fight for
equality so they could
respond to their countries'
wartime needs
1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies
50,000,000 –
100,000,000 died
1918 Flu Pandemic:
Spanish Flu
Attacked strong
healthy 18-30
year olds
Kills 40-50+
million World
675,000+ in US
Serious Economic Problems
Battles ruined crop land. Poisons
left soil unfit to farm.
Civilians died from starvation and
Food Prices soared.
Other Costs of the war reached
$338 billion.
increase in
the cost of
food from
1914 - 1919
Revolution in Russia
Many soldiers left front lines to go back home
In March of 1917, there was unrest (a small
civil war) and the Czar was forced to resign.
A provisional government was formed.
Support for the war was fading, due the lack
of supplies and the large number of men dying
(5.5 million either dead or POWs)
A second revolution
strikes in November and
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin and
the Communist seizes
his first acts is to end
the war with Germany
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918. Caption: Officers from the staff of Field
Marshall von Hindenburg meet the Leo Trotsky and delegation of Soviet
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Signed in March 1918
between Russia and
Germany ended the
Russian involvement in
the war.
The treaty forced
Russia to give up the
land the contained
modern day Finland,
Poland, Ukraine, Estonia,
Latvia, and Lithuania.
At the end of the
war the treaty was
voided, but those
areas will gain their
That will last until
the end of WWII
and then the end of
the Cold War and
the fall of the
Soviet Union.
End of Imperial Germany
On 8th November 1918,
Imperial Germany came to an
end when a democratic
republic was established.
Though it was intended to
have Wilhelm tried as a ‘war
criminal’ he was eventually
allowed to spend the rest of
his life in exile in the
Netherlands. He died in 1941.
Victory at Last
Germans wanted a decisive victory before
Americans arrived to help
Their last attack pushed British back, but
exhausted German forces
Americans helped the Allies push German
forces out of France and Belgium
Colorized photograph, which depicts from left to right: German Admiral Ernst Vanselow, German Count Alfred von Oberndorff (1870 - 1963) of the Foreign Ministry,
German army general Detlof von Winterfeldt, British naval captain J.P.R. Marriott, head of the German delegation Center party member of the Reichstag Matthias
Erzberger (1875 - 1921) who was later murdered by Freikorps rightists for his role in the Amristice, British Admiral George Hope, British First Sea Lord Sir Rosslyn
Wemyss (1864 - 1933), French field marshall Ferdinand Foch (1851 - 1929), and French general Maxime Weygand (1867 - 1965).
German government
sought an Armistice
with the Allies
The Armistice was
signed by the allied
commander Marshall
Foch on - 11:00 A.M.
Nov. 11, 1918 (11-11 at 11
This photograph was taken after
reaching an agreement for the
armistice that ended World War
I. This is Marshall Ferdinand
Foch's own railway carriage and
the location is in the forest of
Compiègne. Foch is second from
the right.
Peace Without Victory
Wilson’s Plan For Peace
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
US President, Woodrow Wilson, anticipated
the end of the war and hoped to inspire a
peace plan that would solve the long-term
problems that caused the war (MAIN).
He drafted a proposal called “The Fourteen
He brings his ideas to the Paris Peace
Basics of Wilson’s Fourteen Points
Self determination (personal independence)
of all peoples
Arms reduction
Freedom of the Seas
No secret treaties
Free and open trade
Formation of the League of Nations- provide
a forum for nations to discuss and settle
their grievances without war
Map of the World showing the Participants in World War
Green: Entente and Allies (some entered the war or dropped out later)
Gold : Central Powers
Gray: Neutral Countries*
In 1919, the Big 4 met in Paris to negotiate the Treaty
(Lloyd George of Great Britain, Orlando of Italy,
Clemenceau of France, and Woodrow Wilson of the U.S.)
What did Britain Want
In public LloydGeorge said he wanted
to punish the Germans.
The British public was
very anti-German at
the end of the war.
In private he realized
that Britain needed
Germany to recover
because she was an
important trading
Prime Minister David Lloyd-George
Germany should be punished, but not so
much that the people would turn to
Communism, like what was happening in
The British public wanted severe
repercussions for Germany
Had to go with popular opinion, rather than
gut feeling
What did France want?
to cripple Germany so it
couldn't attack France
Wanted Germany broken
down into smaller states
France had suffered the
most during the war so
Clemenceau was under
great pressure from the
French people to make
Germany pay.
What did the US want?
a better and more peaceful world
the right to self-determination. The right to
decide which country you wish to be
governed by
a League of Nations that would help and
support each other and help to promote
world peace
The U.S.A. had joined war late (1917) and
hadn't suffered as much as the other Allies
in terms of human and material costs
Paris Peace Conference
Central powers and Russia were not allowed
to take part
Treaty of Versailles-created new nations,
shifted boundaries
What did
Wilson hope
the League of
Nations would
Outcome of the Peace Settlements
Self-Determination in Eastern Europe
Poland became independent nation
Baltic states developed
Three new republics rose out of the old
Hapsburg heartland
The Mandate System
Victors of the war received over sea territories
of the losers
Colonial leaders expected peace would bring an
end to imperial rule
(Combining of
Germany and
Austria) forbidden
League of Nations
created but Germany
not admitted
Why was Germany such a BRAT
over the Treaty?
Germany had to accept the Blame for
starting the war (Article 231)
Germany paid Reparations for the damage
done during the war. (33 billion)
Germany was forbidden to have submarines
or an air force. She could have a navy of
only six battleships, and an Army of just
100,000 men.
Germany lost Territory (land) in Europe (see
map). Germany’s colonies were given to
Britain and France.
Effects of the
Treaty of Versailles
Territories in Africa and the Pacific were given
to the League of Nations to govern;
Alsace-Loraine to France and the French
boarder was extended to the Rhine River.
(buffer zone)
Polish Corridor giving Poland access to the sea,
BUT divided East Prussia from Germany
Saar a large industrial area becomes a
protectorate of the France/Allies for 15 years.
In 1935 it votes to return back to Germany
Was broken up and declared independent nations
Czechs and Slovaks formed Czechoslovakia
Croats and Slovenes joined with Serbia to
form Yugoslavia
The new Austria was forbidden to unite with
Italy and Romania gained land from the old
Ottoman Empire:
Gave up all of their territory, except
present day Turkey.
New nations of Palestine, Iraq,
Transjordan were placed under British
control, Syria and Lebanon to France.
Within Turkey, nationalists overthrew
the Ottoman sultan
Great Britain “forgot” about its
promises to both Arab Muslims and Jews
to create an independent homeland for
them in their holy lands
Romania and Poland
gained Russian
Finland, Estonia,
Latvia and Lithuania
became independent
The treaty was signed on June 28,
1919 ( five years from the date of
the Archduke’s assassination)
Treaty’s Weaknesses
Flaws in the treaty sowed the seeds of
postwar international problems that
eventually lead to WWII
Treaty humiliated Germany
War-Guilt Clause (Article 231)-forced
Germany to admit sole responsibility for
starting WWI
No way Germany could pay the bill
Russia was excluded from the peace
conference and lost more territory than
Germany (Russia had the most causalities
in war and fought for 3 years)
League of Nations Offers Hope
More than 40 nations joined
Agreed to negotiate disputes rather than
go to war
Henry Cabot Lodge voiced his resistance to
the League- Senate refused to ratify the
treaty for the US to join the League
Loss of the US weakened the League’s
League could not prevent war
How did Germans React to the Treaty?
Germans thought the Treaty was a “diktat” : a
dictated peace. They had not been invited to
the peace conference at Versailles and when
the Treaty was presented to them they were
threatened with war if they did not sign it.
The Treaty was NOT based on Wilson’s
Fourteen Points as the Germans had been
promised it would.
Most Germans believed that the War Guilt
Clause was unjustified. The French and British
had done just as much to start the war
The loss of territory
and population angered
most Germans who
believed that the losses
were too severe.
Many Germans believed
the German economy
would be crippled by
having to pay
Will make payments on
and off until 1931
Wilson’s Lack of Support
The USA became isolationist
after the war.
The US Senate disagreed
with the League of Nations
because they thought that by
becoming a member they
would lose their
independence and get drawn
into international disputes.
The Senate also felt that
Wilson was partisan (favoring
one political party) and they
disliked him.
The Legacy of the War
War takes heavy toll: 8.5 + million soldiers
dead, 21 million wounded
War devastates European economies, drains
national treasuries
Many acres of land and homes, villages, towns
Survivors suffer disillusionment and despair;
reflected in the arts
Three major European dynasties were
dethroned: the Hohenzollerns of Germany, the
Hapsburgs of Austria-Hungary, and the
Romanovs of Russia
World War I Casualties
Even those men who lived were horribly scarred,
crippled or emotionally destroyed.
Name 6 problems a country that loses 9 million
people in 3 years will face?
Called WWI “the war to end all wars”
Treaty of Versailles settled nothing
Adolf Hitler emerged as an angry
WWI vet and rose to power in
From left to right: standing: Sperl (Munich),
Litigraph, Max Mund (Munich), Vergolder, sitting:
George Wimmer (Munich), Strassenbahner, Josef
Inkofer (Munich) Lausamer (Fallen), the fuhrer,
lying: Balthasar Brandmayer (Bad Aibling),
Many Americans looked forward to
return to “normalcy”
World War I had many changes in the
Strengthened military
Social change for African Americans
and Women
Women will gain political power and
the right to vote
Peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 3, 1918)
Conditions of an Armistice with Germany
(signed November 11, 1918)
Other WWI
The Peace Treaty of Versailles- The Allies (except the US) and Germany
(signed June 28, 1919)
Treaty of Neuilly- The Allies and Bulgaria
(November 27, 1919)
Treaty of Trianon- The Allies and Hungary
(signed June 4, 1920)
US Peace Treaties with Austria, Hungary and Germany
(August, 1921)
Treaty of Lausanne- The Allies (except the US) and Turkey
(July 24, 1923)
And more Treaties…
League of Nations ProtocolEstablished the League of
Washington Conference
Establishing a Commission of
Jurists to Consider Laws of
(February 4, 1922)
Washington Treaty in Relation to
the Use of Submarines and
Noxious Gases in Warfare
(February 6, 1922)
San Remo Convention- Gives
control of Palestine to Britain
(24 July, 1922)
Geneva Protocol
for the Prohibition of Poisonous Gases
and Bacteriological Methods of Warfare
(June 17, 1925)
Treaty Providing for the Renunciation of
War as an Instrument of National Policy Signed by nearly every country in the war.
(Kellogg-Briand Pact)
(August 27, 1928)
1. What is the
2. What does this
cartoon imply
about the
League of
Nations and the
Treaty of
Will it Survive?
1. Is the artist
optimistic that there
will be lasting
2. What clues provide
the evidence to
support your
answer to number
3. How has this artist
World War 2 and the
Cold War?