End of WWI
End of WWI
The goal is to create a peace treaty to
prevent future wars
The Big Four
• France (Clemenceau)
Germany should be brought to its knees so that it can never start a war again
• Britain (George)
Didn’t want to be too soft on Germany, but felt Europe needed a strong Germany to as
a barrier to communism in Russia
• USA (Wilson)
Stunned by the savagery of the Great War. Wanted to avoid future wars. Wanted
Germany punished, but also wanted European reconciliation opposed to revenge.
• Italy (Orlando)
Frequently left out of important negotiations. Wanted help rebuilding Italy.
• What is the punishment for Germany?
• How should this country be punished economically?
• The allies made bargains with countries such as Italy
and Japan promising territory after the war in return
for their support-Do they have to stick to that?
• What territorial changes should occur?
• What military restrictions should be implemented so
that another world war does not occur?
• Are there any other provisions you want to include?
WORLD PEACE is the goal!
Wilson’s 14 Points
• Wilson takes a look at causes and tries to fix
them. First 5 points:
– No Alliances
– Freedom of seas
– Free trade
– Arms reduction(militarism)
– Fair policies between imperial and colonial
nations(imperialism and nationalism)
14 Points continued
• Next 8 deal with boundary changes based on
The League of Nations
• Purpose: to promote international peace and
• The toll of WWI encourages the prevention of
• (Germany was excluded until 1926)
Treaty of Paris
Broke up Ottoman Empire and Austria Hungary
Established 9 new nations
Germany returns Alsace-Lorraine to France
Germany is essentially disarmed
German army reduced to a maximum of 100,000
soldiers, navy also reduced
• Forbidden to build major weapons of aggression
Weaknesses of Treaty
• Humiliates & bankrupts Germany
– War-Guilt clause-forced to accept total blame for
the war. Most Germans HATED treaty.
– Reparations-$33 billion to Allies
– Downsize their military and navy
• All of Germany’s colonial possessions were
confiscated, making them unable to pay.
• Bolsheviks in Russia/Soviet Union left out
– Russia suffered most casualties during WWI
– Lost more territory than Germany
– Stalin is determined to regain lost territory
What to do with colonies?
• Germany stripped of all colonies to help pay
• Ignored self-determination claims of Asian
• Ho Chi Minh-wanted independence for French
Indochina/Vietnam. Appealed to President
Wilson who ignored him
• Americans opposed the Treaty, they felt it was
• Americans also disagreed about the League of
Nations. Most wanted a policy of isolation.
What circumstances at this time would
eventually lead many Germans to support Adolf
Political instability in Europe. Militant fascist
organizations seized Germany, Italy and Spain.
Hitler represented a chance for vengeance.
Woodrow Wilson in an address to the
“It must be a peace without victory….Victory
would mean peace forced upon the loser; a
victor’s terms imposed upon the vanquished. It
would be accepted in humiliation, under duress,
at an intolerable sacrifice, and would leave a
sting, a resentment, a bitter memory upon
which the terms of peace would rest, not
permanently, but only as upon quicksand. Only a
peace between equals can last.”