Transcript Chapter 16

Chapter 27 – World War I and Its
Section 5 – Making the Peace
Setting the Scene
Just weeks after the Great War ended, President
Wilson boarded a steamship bound for France.
He had decided to go in person to Paris, where
Allied leaders would make the peace. Wilson was
certain that he could solve the problems of old
Europe. "Tell me what is right," Wilson urged his
advisers, "and I'll fight for it."
Sadly, it would not be that easy. Europe was a
shattered continent. Its problems, and those of
the world, would not be solved at the Paris Peace
Conference, or for many years afterward.
I. The Costs of War
More than 8.5 million people were dead and
over 21 million had been wounded
Let us use arithmetic for World War I –
9,000,000 dead young men equal
1,350,000,000 pounds of bone and flesh
27,900,000 pounds of brain matter
11,250,000 gallons of blood
414,000,000 years of life that will never be lived
22,500,000 children who will never be born
The dry if imposing figure "9,000,000 dead" seems a
little less statistical when we view it from this
Dalton Trumbo, author of Johnny Got His Gun
I. The Costs of War
The devastation was made worse in 1918 by
the influenza pandemic, which killed more
than 20 million
I. The Costs of War
The costs of rebuilding and paying off war
debts were huge, and famine threatened
many regions
Ypres, France
I. The Costs of War
Governments collapsed in Russia, Germany,
Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman empire
I. The Costs of War
Political radicals dreamed of building a new
social order, while Conservatives feared that
communism would spread
I. The Costs of War
Imperial rule was not ended and unrest swept
through Europe's colonies, who had hoped for
II. The Paris Peace Conference
Woodrow Wilson’s talk of self-determination
and democracy raised hopes for a just and
lasting peace
Paris crowds greet President
Wilson (1919)
II. The Paris Peace Conference
Wilson urged "peace without victory," and
wanted the Fourteen Points to be the basis of
the peace
Representatives at the
Paris Peace Conference
included, left to right,
British prime minister
Lloyd George, Italian
foreign minister Giorgio
Sonnino, French
premier Georges
Clemenceau, and U.S.
president Woodrow
II. The Paris Peace Conference
British PM David Lloyd George demanded
harsh treatment for Germany and to make
them pay for the war
II. The Paris Peace Conference
French leader Georges Clemenceau wanted
to weaken Germany so it could never threaten
France again
III. The Treaty of Versailles
In June 1919 at Versailles, the Germans were
ordered to sign the treaty drawn up by the
III. The Treaty of Versailles
Germany was forced to assume full blame for
causing the war and pay reparations totaling
over $30 billion
III. The Treaty of Versailles
The treaty limited the size of the German
military, returned Alsace and Lorraine to
France, and stripped Germany of its colonies
Lady Germania
chained to a
torture pole.
German political
picture, June
III. The Treaty of Versailles
Germany resented the terms of the Treaty but
signed because they had no other choice
From a book produced in Germany during the 1930s
III. The Treaty of Versailles
New nations included the Baltic states, Austria,
Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Yugoslavia, and
Poland regained independence
III. The Treaty of Versailles
Mandates were created - territories to be
administered by western powers until they
were able to "stand alone"
League of Nations Mandates - Middle East & Africa
II. The Paris Peace Conference
Wilson had to compromise on his Fourteen
Points, but his goal of a League of Nations to
preserve peace became a reality
III. The Treaty of Versailles
More than 40 nations joined the League of
Nations, agreeing to negotiate disputes rather
than resort to war