Transcript Chapter 24

Chapter 24
Section 2: Europe Goes to War
Invasion of Poland
Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia,
GB & France abandoned
appeasement & prepared for war
►Warned that further expansion
meant war
►March 31, 1939 GB & France
formally pledged to support Poland
Hitler’s Pact with Stalin
realized they had much to
gain by working together
Aug- signed a ten year
nonaggression pact, which
eliminated an attack from the
document attached to the
pact was that Germany & the
Soviet Union would divide up the
countries of eastern Europe
►Sept 1- Hitler invaded Poland
►Sept 3- Britain & France declared
war on Germany
Lightning War
France, & Poland together
had more soldiers & infantry units
than Germany
Each German division had
superior firepower & organized
its tanks into separate armored
used the blitzkrieg that
included a fast, concentrated air &
land attack that took the enemy’s
army by surprise
Using this tactic, they overran
Poland in less than 1 month
SU joined this attack mid-Sept.
War in the West
Poland fell, the war
entered a quiet period dubbed
“phony war”
►Germans labeled it “sitzkrieg”
(sit down war)
troops waited while the
French forces held their defenses
at the Maginot Line (massive
string of fortifications along
France’s border with Germany
Protected only the part of
France that bordered Germany
All guns pointed east towards
Germany attacks
9, 1940- Hitler began an
attack on Denmark & Norway
►May 16- launched a blitzkrieg
on the Netherlands, Belgium, &
Britain & France were too late
to defend Belgium
May- invaded northern
France via Belgium & raced up
the English Channel, splitting
the main French armies to the
south from the British & French
troops in northern France &
forces in the north retreated to
the coastal city of Dunkirk
►1 of the greatest rescues took place
They assembled a makeshift fleet
consisting of tugboats, yachts, &
private crafts (900 total carrying
340,000 soldiers across the English
Channel to GB) while being
bombed by the Luftwaffe
The Fall of France
10- French government
abandoned Paris
Italy declared war of GB &
►June 22- France officially
Germany occupied the northern
3/5 of France & the Atlantic
coast south to Spain
The French government
supervised the south from Vichy
►Adopted a policy of
collaboration with Germany
France (government in exile
in London) struggled against
German invaders in central & west
Led by Charles de Gaullebacked the underground
resistance movement in France
The Battle of Britain
To neutralize the British navy,
Germany turned to the air
Aug. 1940- launched the
greatest air assault yet
of Britain
First Germany only targeted British
ports, airfields, & radar
installations, later attacked aircraft
factories & oil storage tanks
Group of German bombers strayed
off course & bombed London
days later GB bombed Berlin
ordered massive bombing
raids on GB cities to break
people’s will to resist
Courageous Defense
RAF defended the
Inflicted heavy damage on the
►By the end of 1941, German air
raids ended
Feb. 1940- scientists cracked
the code Germany used for
top secret communications
►British could get a general
idea of Hitler’s battle plans