World War II (1939-1945)

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Transcript World War II (1939-1945)

World War II (19391945)
US Involvement
Causes for World War II
 Treaty of Versailles
 Nationalism
 Worldwide
 Dictatorships
 The policy of
 American
 Germany invading
Poland on
September 1st,
Hitler and Nazi Germany
Rise to power result of
weakness of previous
government (1933became Chancellor)
 Charismatic speaker,
preached German
nationalism, denounced
Versailles Treaty
 Blamed Jews,
communists for
Germany’s problems
 Promised return of
German pride
Benito Mussolini in Italy
 Fascist
leader who took
control of Italy in 1922
 Wanted to create another
Roman Empire
 Invaded Ethiopia in 1935
 Along with Hitler
supported Francisco
Franco in the Spanish
Civil War (combat
Japanese Expansion
 Sought
total control
of Pacific (resources)
 1931- military
occupation of
 1936- Japan signs
Pact with Germany,
 Nanking MassacreDecember 1937
American Neutrality
President Roosevelt
U.S. in midst of Great
Depression, public intent
on remaining neutral
Isolationism in the United
 Economic,
Hitler and
military reasons
for neutrality
 Tried to prevent mistakes
that led to WWI involvement
 FDR: “Let no one imagine
that we will escape…that this
western hemisphere will not
be attacked”—outraged
many isolationists
From Neutrality to Undeclared
When WW II began in 1939, FDR got Congress
agree to a cash & carry policy to aid the Allies:
– The U.S. would trade with the Allies but would not
offer loans & would not deliver American products to
Europe (so come get them yourselves!)
“Destroyers for Bases”: 50 American
destroyers exchanged for the use of 8 British
naval bases along the North Atlantic coast
– allowed the U.S. to extend its influence
FDR called for a Lend-Lease Act:
– US can sell or lend war supplies to Allied nations
From Neutrality to Undeclared
 Appalled by this
departure from
neutrality & FDR’s
involvement of the
US in a foreign war
 Their “Fortress of
America” idea argued
that Germany was
not a threat to the
 Groups like the
Committee to Defend
America by Aiding the
Allies called for
unlimited aid to
 They argued that the
events in Europe did
impact the security of
From Neutrality to Undeclared
England desperately needed help
escorting these supplies through the uboat infested Atlantic
– FDR allowed for US patrols in the western half
of the Atlantic
– German attacks on US ships led to an
undeclared naval war in 1941 & allowed US
ships to fully deliver war supplies to Allies
US Cash and Carry Program
FDR’s Four Freedoms
 “The first is freedom of speech and expression--
everywhere in the world.
 The second is freedom of every person to worship God
in his own way--everywhere in the world.
 The third is freedom from want--which, translated into
world terms, means economic understandings which will
secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its
inhabitants-everywhere in the world.
 The fourth is freedom from fear--which, translated into
world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to
such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation
will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression
against any neighbor--anywhere in the world.”
From Neutrality to Undeclared War
In 1941, FDR & Churchill met to secretly draft
the Atlantic Charter:
– The U.S. & Britain discussed military strategy if
America were to enter the war
– They discussed post-war goals of liberty, free
trade, & disarmament
The U.S. Enters the War
The U.S. destroyer Greer
attacked in September
1941 
– direct involvement in naval
USS Greer
Atlantic Charter
United States and Japan
 Japan wanted to extend
influence in Far East
 Anticipating attack in the
Philippines, in July 1940:
U.S. embargo of raw
materials to Japan
Japanese attack on
Pearl Harbor
 December 7, 1941: Japan
attacks Pearl Harbor,
Images of Pearl Harbor
America Enters War
Pearl Harbor attack
devastates nation
 FDR: “A date which will
live in infamy”
 December 8, 1941- FDR
receives war declaration
from Congress against
 Germany, Italy declare
war on United States
FDR addresses Congress after
Pearl Harbor attack