Rocks and Minerals
Rocks and Minerals
What is a rock and mineral?
Identifying minerals chart and bar graph
Minerals in your home
Types of rock chart
Identifying and classifying rocks
Sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks
The rock cycle
Making a sedimentary sandwich
What is a volcano?
Rocks and minerals song
Becoming a geologist
Rocks and minerals picture hunt
• The students will be able to:
– Explain the difference between a rock and a
– Recognize the physical attributes of rocks and
minerals using observation
– Determine how water and wind can change
rocks and soil over time
– Investigate physical attributes of rocks
What is a Mineral?
What is a Rock?
People use the word mineral to mean
different things. True minerals are pure,
solid substances made up of crystals.
some minerals, like gold and carbon, are
made of one element. Others, like salt
and quartz, are made of a combination of
elements. only natural substances are
true minerals. So if you find some salt in
a salt mine, it is a mineral, but if you
make salt in a science laboratory, it is
not - even though they are exactly the
Rocks form the hard outer crust of our
planet, The Earth. Rocks are made up of
minerals, and minerals themselves are
made up of elements.
Unlike animals and plants, rocks are not
alive. But that does not mean they always
stay the same - in fact, they are changing
all the time. Rocks can dissolve, melt, fall
apart and even change into other rocks!
A mineral is composed of the same substance throughout. If you were to cut a mineral sample, it
would look the same throughout. There are about 3000 different minerals in the world. Minerals
are made of chemicals - either a single chemical or a combination of chemicals.
Did you know your
mom’s jewelry was
made of different
Ask to see how many
minerals your mom has
in her jewelry box. How
many can you count?
Together, we will identify each of the following minerals using the properties
we have learned about in classifying minerals.
Uses of Mineral
Broken down into sand.
Very hard mineral. Takes a
lot of time to break down.
Used for making
sandpaper and tools.
Changed by heat and
pressure. Opposite sides are
parallel. Not very hard.
Used for fertilizer,
cement, chalk, and stone.
Similar to a diamond, but
much softer. The black
streak is from plant remains.
Used for lead pencils and
Perfect cleavage. Has a
soapy or greasy feel. Very
Used by artists for sculpting.
Found in crayons, paint,
paper, and soap.
Red or black mineral, always
with a red streak. Earthy
luster. Not hard or soft.
Used as a source of iron.
Look what Gemstones are in my
jewelry box at home!
Let’s do some Math!
1. How many garnets and
diamonds are in all?
Gemstones in the Jewlery Box
2. How many more diamonds are
there than rubies?
3. Which three stones have the
4. How many sapphires, rubies,
and emeralds are in all?
Did you know your birthday month has a
special mineral to represent your day of
birth? Lots of people wear jewelry that is
the color of their birthday. This chart
shows our birthdays and minerals.
M /Am rn e
/B eth t
Ap ods t
r/D to n
M iam e
Ju ay/ o
ne Em n d
le ra l
A u ly t e
Se Sar b y
O t/Sa nyx
/T p p
No a lin
Birthday and Gemstone Chart
Did you know there are hundreds of minerals in your house?
Click on the link below to see what minerals are in your house.
3 Kinds of Rocks
Made from fire and
Comes from liquid
rock from a volcano
Rain and wind cause
Mountains to crumble
Broken rocks form
Layers in lakes and
Changed from Igneous
or Metamorphic rocks
Caused by heat
The color of a mineral helps you identify what it is.
Use a hammer to break the mineral into uneven and
There is a special scratch test used to how hard
Compare the weight of a mineral with the weight of
The color of a mineral’s powder. Rub the mineral
across a tile to see this.
How a mineral reflects light. Words like dull, metallic,
glassy, and silky are common.
Cleavage is the way that a mineral breaks along well
defined planes of weakness. (We will not use this one)
Refers to how the light passes through the mineral.
What is it?
Geologist figure out the type of
rock or mineral by using the
properties to determine what kind
of rock or mineral it is. The
properties are on this chart. We
will use some of these properties
when we begin identifying rocks
and minerals in the classroom.
Let’s talk about them.
How Sedimentary Rocks Are Formed
For thousands, even millions of years,
little pieces of our earth have been
eroded--broken down and worn away
by wind and water. These little bits of
our earth are washed downstream
where they settle to the bottom of the
rivers, lakes, and oceans. Layer after
layer of eroded earth is deposited on
top of each. These layers are pressed
down more and more through time,
until the bottom layers slowly turn into
What does erode mean?
How are layers formed?
Where are the layers formed?
How Igneous Rocks are Formed
Igneous rocks are called fire rocks and are formed
either underground or above ground. Underground,
they are formed when the melted rock, called
magma, deep within the earth becomes trapped in
small pockets. As these pockets of magma cool
slowly underground, the magma becomes igneous
rocks. Igneous rocks are also formed when
volcanoes erupt, causing the magma to rise above
the earth's surface. When magma appears above the
earth, it is called lava. Igneous rocks are formed as
the lava cools above ground.
Where are igneous rocks formed?
What is the melted rock called?
When are igneous rocks formed?
How Metamorphic Rocks Are Formed
Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have
"morphed" into another kind of rock.
These rocks were once igneous or
sedimentary rocks. How do
sedimentary and igneous rocks
change? The rocks are under tons and
tons of pressure, which fosters heat
build up, and this causes them to
change. If you examine metamorphic
rock samples closely, you'll discover
how flattened some of the grains in the
Metamorphic rocks were once what kind of
How do the rocks change?
What shape are most of the rocks?
Layers of Sedimentary Rock
The earth’s layers are like a sandwich.
Start with the bottom layer..It’s the oldest.
Start with some bread
Add some peppers
Some more bread
Add some chicken
When we get to the top layer, we have reach
the youngest layer of rock.
Most volcanoes are cone shaped. Volcanoes are made of
many layers of cooled and hardened magma or lava. Even
when the lava is hardened, and you're able to walk
safely on it, burning hot lava is flowing inside the
volcano. Lava that flows out of the volcano and onto the
ground, hardens and becomes volcanic rocks. Obsidian, or
black glass, is a volcanic rock that is shiny and sharp,
but dried up too fast for crystals to grow.
Why Volcanoes Erupt
Volcanoes erupt because of the great pressure on the
magma inside the earth's crust. The pressure comes
from the heat and the earth's crust. when the pressure
becomes too great, the magma flows upward looking for
an opening to escape the pressure. when an opening is
found, the magma flows out. This is a volcanic eruption.
When magma cools quickly
Basalt and Pumice are made.
Changing rocks, changing rocks
• Now it’s your turn to become a geologist.
You will complete the following activities:
Find out how many jewels are in your mom’s jewelry box at home. Click below to see my
example from earlier. We will make a chart together at school.
Go to http://volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/kids/kids.htmlClick on Virtual Field Trips and take a tour.
Go to http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/movies/Fogo/fogo.htmland click on any of the
videos. Watch the volcanoes erupt. Be patient, it takes a few seconds for the videos to load.
How many different rocks and
minerals can you find in these
pictures? Let’s name them