CMM_1.4_Challenges_Forest

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Transcript CMM_1.4_Challenges_Forest

Section 1. Overview of Climate Change
and Forest Carbon
1.4. Theoretical and practical challenges for
forest-based climate mitigation
USAID LEAF
Regional Climate Change Curriculum Development
Module: Carbon Measurement and Monitoring (CMM)
Name
Affiliation
Name
Affiliation
Deborah Lawrence, Co-lead
University of Virginia
Megan McGroddy, Co-lead
University of Virginia
Bui The Doi, Co-lead
Vietnam Forestry University
Ahmad Ainuddin Nuruddin
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Prasit Wang, Co-lead
Chiang Mai University,
Thailand
Mohd Nizam Said
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Sapit Diloksumpun
Kasetsart University, Thailand
Pimonrat Tiansawat
Chiang Mai University, Thailand
Pasuta Sunthornhao
Kasetsart University, Thailand
Panitnard Tunjai
Chiang Mai University, Thailand
Wathinee Suanpaga
Kasetsart University, Thailand
Lawong Balun
University of Papua New Guinea
Jessada Phattralerphong
Kasetsart University, Thailand
Mex Memisang Peki
PNG University of Technology
Pham Minh Toai
Vietnam Forestry University
Kim Soben
Royal University of Agriculture, Cambodia
Nguyen The Dzung
Vietnam Forestry University
Pheng Sokline
Royal University of Phnom Penh,
Cambodia
Nguyen Hai Hoa
Vietnam Forestry University
Seak Sophat
Royal University of Phnom Penh,
Cambodia
Le Xuan Truong
Vietnam Forestry University
Choeun Kimseng
Royal University of Phnom Penh,
Cambodia
Phan Thi Quynh Nga
Vinh University, Vietnam
Rajendra Shrestha
Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand
Erin Swails
Winrock International
Ismail Parlan
FRIM Malaysia
Sarah Walker
Winrock International
Nur Hajar Zamah Shari
FRIM Malaysia
Sandra Brown
Winrock International
Samsudin Musa
FRIM Malaysia
Karen Vandecar
US Forest Service
Ly Thi Minh Hai
USAID LEAF Vietnam
Geoffrey Blate
US Forest Service
David Ganz
USAID LEAF Bangkok
Chi Pham
USAID LEAF Bangkok
I
II
III
OVERVIEW: CLIMATE CHANGE AND FOREST CARBON
1.1
Overview: Tropical Forests and Climate Change
1.2
Tropical forests, the global carbon cycle and climate change
1.3
Role of forest carbon and forests in global climate negotiations
1.4
Theoretical and practical challenges for forest-based climate mitigation
FOREST CARBON STOCKS AND CHANGE
2.1
Overview of forest carbon pools (stocks)
2.2
Land use, land use change, and forestry (LULUCF) and CO2 emissions and sequestration
2.3
Overview of Forest Carbon Measurement and Monitoring
2.4
IPCC approach for carbon measurement and monitoring
2.5
Reference levels – Monitoring against a baseline (forest area, forest emissions)
2.6
Establishing Lam Dong’s Reference Level for Provincial REDD+ Action Plan : A Case Study
CARBON MEASUREMENT AND MONITORING DESIGN
3.1
IV
V
Considerations in developing a monitoring system
CARBON STOCK MEASUREMENT METHODS
4.1
Forest Carbon Measurement and Monitoring
4.2
Design of field sampling framework for carbon stock inventory
4.3
Plot Design for Carbon Stock Inventory
4.4
Forest Carbon Field Measurement Methods
4.5
Carbon Stock Calculations and Available Tools
4.6
Creating Activity Data and Emission Factors
4.7
Carbon Emission from Selective Logging
4.8
Monitoring non-CO2 GHGs
NATIONAL SCALE MONITORING SYSTEMS
•
•
•
History of UNFCCC
Including forests
Mitigation and other benefits
Lecture (60 minutes)


Why include forests in UN agreements?

Overview of REDD+

Challenges to achieving REDD+
Classroom activity (25 minutes)
At the end of the session, learners will be able to:

Distinguish the types of activities that make up REDD+

Explain the major philosophical and practical challenges
to achieving REDD+

Define the major stakeholders who have a role to play in
decisions about forest resource management
“20% of the problem must be
20% of the solution”
An opportunity to cut global
CO2 emissions significantly,
quickly, and relatively
inexpensively

REDD+ and other programs involve both developing
and developed nations.

Developed nations: contributing technological capacity
and funding.

Developing nations: finding alternative paths that allow
them to develop economically while protecting their forest
resources
Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs):

First developed in the Bali Road Map in 2007.

Different countries will choose different actions.

Developed nations will supply both financial and
technological support

Developing nations: act to reduce GHG emissions while
achieving development goals

NAMAs (vary by country): some potential actions would
include

progressive reduction in oil subsidies,

poverty reduction through promotion of alternative
income to reduce illegal logging

exploit more fully a country’s renewable energy resources,
especially geothermal and wind
Reducing Emissions from:
1. Deforestation
2. Degradation
3. Conservation
4. Sustainable forest management
5. Enhancing carbon stocks
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D0WeGw3h2yU#t=28
+

Important to understand the
drivers of deforestation

Common drivers are conversion
to industrial and small scale crop
production or pasture

Important to focus on reducing
areas of forests actually cleared

Intensify crop and cattle
production per unit area of land
Deforestation vs Cattle and Soybean Production in Brazil

Degradation reductions can come from improved forest
management/ logging methods

Protection from other factors, such as fire

Forests that are degraded are less resistant to other stresses
such as drought or disease
Supporting the protection of intact
(and not currently threatened)
forest resources in developing
countries .



Allows the participation of countries
with low historical rates of
deforestation
Countries with low historical rates of
deforestation are considered at risk if
deforestation activities are reduced in
other tropical countries and this is one
way to help avoid this unintended
consequence

Improving the technical capacity for forest
management in developing countries

Encouraging and supporting the development of
more efficient forest management

Forestry techniques, such as reduced impact
logging (RIL), better plantation forestry where
appropriate
Increasing the amount of carbon stored in forest biomass
and forest soils through a variety of techniques
(afforestation/ reforestation)
1.
Leakage
2.
Additionality
3.
Permanence
4.
Governance
5.
Equity

Leakage refers to the fact that while deforestation might
be avoided in one place, the deforestation might move to
i) another area of forest or ii) to a different country.

Levels of leakage
- International
- Intra-national
Start of a forest
protection project
Area A
Area B
Total
Before
Ongoing
deforestation and
degradation
Undisturbed
forests
CO2 emissions
After
Deforestation
and degradation
reduced
Deforestation and CO2 emissions
degradation
commence
Change
Emissions
reduced
Emissions
increased
No change

International carbon leakage from REDD occurs when
forest conservation in one country directly or indirectly
leads to deforestation in another country.

Leakage occurs when the scale of intervention is smaller
than the scale of the overall problem (Wunder, 2009).
…leads to increased logging in
Champasack
E.g. A logging ban
in Savannakhet…

Leakage within national boundaries can be reported
under a national carbon accounting system.

Many REDD+ programs will start with projects at the subnational level and the potential for intra-national leakage
is a concern
Emission
level
Project
reduction
Additionality can be
defined as whether an
emissions reduction or
removal would have
occurred in the absence
of the activity in
question.
Baseline and Additionality
Reduction
s
Project emissions
Time
Start of
Project

Carbon sequestered in the terrestrial biosphere is
not permanently removed from the atmosphere,
and is at constant risk of being returned through
deforestation, whether intentional or not (Palmer
2011)

Who is liable (who pays the price) when a protected
carbon pool is lost? For example from deforestation,
disease or fire?

Does the liability belong to the developed nation or
industry which bought the carbon credit which no longer
exists?

Is the national or local government or who ever received
the payment responsible?

Success of the REDD+ program requires good, efficient
and transparent governance of the forest resources

Areas of concern:
•
accounting of additionality (the actual effect of programs),
•
accurate and honest measurements of carbon pools, and
•
fair distribution of benefits

Who benefits, who pays a cost and who makes the
decisions about forest management?

Costs and benefits are not only those that can be thought
of in terms of economics
Equality
Equity

National, regional and local government agencies

Local and/or indigenous people who live in or depend on
the forests for products or their livelihood

International partners or those who are purchasing
carbon credits based on forest carbon pool protection
Role play

Students draw a name of an interested party

Explain how you (in your role you have just drawn)
use the forest and why you have a right to a voice in
the decisions related to management of forests

Distributive equity is concerned with the allocation
among stakeholders of costs, risks and benefits resulting
from environmental policy or resource management
decisions, and therefore represents primarily (but not
exclusively) the economic dimensions of equity or the
equitable distribution of benefits.

Procedural equity refers to fairness in the political
processes that allocate resources and resolve disputes. It
involves representation, recognition/inclusion, voice and
participation in decision-making

Reasons to include forests in UN Climate Change agreements



Individual activities of REDD+






Immediate and cost effective first step in global GHG emission reductions
Allows both developed and non-developed countries to contribute
Deforestation
Degradation
Conservation
Sustainable Management
Enhancing Carbon Stocks
Challenges to implementing REDD+




Leakage
Permanence
Governance
Equity

Palmer. 2011. Property rights and liability for deforestation under
REDD+: Implications for ‘permanence’ in policy design. Ecological
Economics 70: 571-576

Wunder. 2009. Can payments for environmental services reduce
deforestation and forest degradation? In: Angelsen, A., et al. (Ed.),
Realising REDD+: National Strategy and Policy Options. Centre for
International Forestry Research (CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia, pp. 213–
224. Chapter 17.

UCS 2011. Drivers of deforestation: How Leakage shifts Tropical
Deforestation Around the Globe. Fact Sheet

Korhonen-Kurki et al. 2012. Multiple levels and multiple challenges
for REDD+ in Angelson et al. editors. Analysing REDD+ Challenges
and Choices

Palmer. 2011. Property rights and liability for deforestation under
REDD+: Implications for ‘permanence’ in policy design. Ecological
Economics 70: 571-576

REDD platform of the UNFCCC
http://unfccc.int/methods/redd/redd_web_platform/items/4531.php

World Bank Forest Carbon Partnership Facility
http://www.forestcarbonpartnership.org/what-redd

Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) resources on
REDD+, for example http://www.cifor.org/online-library/browse/viewpublication/publication/3805.html

What is REDD? Video from The REDD Desk
https://youtu.be/D0WeGw3h2yU