Transcript Lec4.1

Chapter 4
Musical Form and
Musical Style
Form in Music
Key Terms
Outer form
Inner form
Form in Music
Overall shape of a musical work
Arrangement, relationship, or organization
of various elements of music
Pitch and melody
Tone color
Form in Music
Musical works can divide into clear
sections with clear-cut relationships or
unfold gradually and organically
Form is not purely intellectual
Our experience of form shapes our
emotional response to a work
The emotional trajectory of a work is
forged by careful use of repetition and
Form in Music
Musical works are formed through
repetitions and contrasts of elements
• Repetitions may be strict or free
• Contrasts may be subtle or dramatic
Repetitions and contrasts define
relationships between phrases of a melody
or sections of a work
Memory is the key to hearing these
relationships as they unfold in time
Form in Music
Possible relationships between phrases,
themes, or sections
Repetition (a a)
• Parallelism
• Identical or nearly identical restatement of a
phrase, theme, or section
• Feels reassuring, but lacks excitement
Form in Music
Possible relationships
Contrast (a b)
• A new phrase or section
• May have subtle connections to previous
material, or may be entirely new
• Provides excitement of new phrase, theme, or
section, but doesn’t feel stable or complete
Form in Music
Possible relationships
Variation (a a’)
• A restatement of previous material, but one or
more elements are altered
• Simultaneous repetition and contrast
• Similar enough to sound like the same idea, but
definitely not identical
• Variation can change or transform the mood or
feeling of a phrase, theme, or section
Form in Music
Possible relationships
Contrast and return (a b a)
• Unlike repetition, return is restatement of
original material after contrasting material
• You can’t return home if you never leave!
• Commonly used, emotionally satisfying
formula (unity and variety)
• Combines excitement of new material and
sense of relief with return of familiar material
Listening for Form
Try several examples—which of these do
you hear?
Contrast and return?
Form and Forms
Form is organization of elements in a work
A form refers to one of many standardized
patterns used by composers
Possible forms include:
Strophic form (A A A …)
Ternary form (A B A)
Baroque dance form (aabb)
Sonata form
Form and Forms
An example: A B A form
Three large sections: statement, contrast,
Each section might have its own form
• A=aba
• B=cdc
• A=aba
Such “nesting” arrangements are often
used to create more complicated forms
Form and Forms
“Outer” and “inner” form
Standard patterns outline a work’s overall
shape—its “outer” form (e.g., A B A)
“Outer” forms are reassuring, provide a
satisfying, easy-to-follow overall shape
“Outer” forms do not describe the content
of each section, its moment-to-moment
inner workings, or the feel of contrasting
material—its “inner” form
Form and Forms
“Inner” Form
Take any work in A B A form
• Is B in a different mode or key?
• Is B’s contrast due to rhythm, texture, tone
color, or some other element?
• Does the return convey excitement, trickiness,
or relief?
Take any other work in A B A form
• The answers will be different!
Same “outer” form, different “inner” form
Musical Genres
Categories or types of musical
A genre can be defined by a its:
• Performing forces (number and kind of
instruments or voices used)
• Function or purpose
• Text
Not to be confused with form
Musical Genres
Examples of genres:
String quartet
Song cycle
Genre vs. Form
A genre is defined by its broadest features
(performers, function, etc.)
A form is defined by its internal sections
and their interrelationships
Genre vs. Form
In literature, poetry is a genre
A work in verse
Usually breaks down into stanzas and lines
Often uses poetic meter and rhyme
Traditionally intended for public reading
Haiku, sonnets, and limericks are forms
• Each has a specific number of lines (3, 14, and
5, respectively)
• Each uses a specific poetic meter (or specific
number of syllables per line)
• The last two have an expected rhyme scheme
Genre vs. Form
In music, the symphony is a genre
• a large work in several movements for
orchestra (performing forces)
• written for entertainment at a public concert
Each movement of a symphony may use a
different form—Haydn’s 95th uses:
Sonata form
Theme and variations
Minuet form
Rondo form
Listening for Genre
Try several examples—answer these
What is the function of this music?
• Public or private entertainment? Worship?
Patriotic? Commercial?
What are the performing forces?
• Orchestra? String quartet? Chorus? Solo
voices? Piano? Rock band? Jazz combo?
What is the genre?