Intro to Earth Sciences

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Transcript Intro to Earth Sciences

Intro to Earth Sciences
What is Earth Science?
Definition of Science
• Science = “having knowledge.”
– a process of observing and studying things in our world.
– a process that helps to understand our world through observation and
problem solving.
• Scientific Theory: explanation based on many observations during
repeated investigations
• Scientific Law: principle that describes the behavior of a natural
phenomenon, or a natural rule
Earth Science
• Earth Science is the study of the Earth and
• It is the study of energy flows and changes
within the Earth and universe (dynamic).
• Earth Science is broken down into four
major categories.
Types of Science
Geology- the study of Earth and Earth materials; the
processes within the Earth. (volcanoes, earthquakes,
mountains, fossils…etc.)
Types of Sciences
Meteorology- the study of the dynamics of the
atmosphere (weather patterns)
Types of Science
Astronomy- the study of space and Earth’s
relationship with the universe (star formation,
comets, deep space objects, nebulae)
Types of Science
Oceanography- the study of the Earth’s oceans.
The processes of the ocean and the effects the
ocean has on man, the Earth’s weather systems
Types of Science
• Environmental Sciences: Study of interactions
organisms and their surroundings, both good
and bad
• Technology is the use of scientific knowledge.
• Technology is transferable. In other words it can
be used for applications other than what it was
originally designed for. (robotics can be used in
both space and in the ocean)
• Technology can cause changes on both small
and large scale. (Sometimes good, sometimes
The Earth’s “Spheres”
• Includes the ocean, lakes, seas, rivers and streams
• Ocean: largest feature of hydrosphere
~97% of Earth’s total water (~70% of surface)
~1.8% ice
~0.6% ground water (that which is trapped underground
~0.02% surface fresh water.
• Includes all life
• Concentrated near surface & extends from
ocean bottom to kilometers into atmo.
• Influences all other spheres
Solid Earth
• Layered due to
density and
– Core (Densest)
– Mantle
– Crust (Least Dense)
• Thin “blanket” of air including a mixture of gases,
liquids & solids
• Half of it is within 5.6km (3.5mi)