Chapter 6, Section 3

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Transcript Chapter 6, Section 3

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Organic: contains carbon
◦ All living things contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H),
oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P)
 Monomer: created when C,H,O, N, P bond together to form
small molecules
 Polymer: large compounds that are formed by joining
monomers together
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Polymerization: process
of making a polymer by
joining monomers
◦ Also known as dehydration
synthesis
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Goal:
◦ Use small molecules to
make larger ones
◦ Uses energy
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Polymers can also be called biomolecules or
macromolecules
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Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
http://www.brainpop.com/health/bodysystems/bodychemistry/
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Going the “other
way”…
Large biomolecules
are broken down in a
process called
hydrolysis
◦ Goal:
 Make small molecules
from larger ones
 Release energy
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Made of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, in a 1:2:1
ratio
◦ Ex: Glucose (C6H12O6),
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Commonly called sugars and starches
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Monomers (subunits) are monosaccharides, also
known as simple sugars
◦ Monosaccharides = 1 sugar
 Ex: glucose, fructose, galactose
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Disaccharides = 2 monosaccharides joined
◦ Ex: sucrose = fructose + glucose
◦ Ex: maltose = glucose + glucose
DS of Carbs
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Polysaccharaides = many monosaccharides
joined
◦ Ex: glycogen (stores excess sugar in animals)
◦ Ex: cellulose (makes rigid plant cell walls)
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2 functions
◦ Store and release quick energy,
◦ Provide structural support
◦ Ex: Exoskeletons of animals/insects
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Food examples:
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Bread
Potatoes
Beans
Pasta
Cereal
Fruit
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Made of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen; large nonpolar molecules that DON’T dissolve in water
Commonly called fats, oils, steroids, and waxes
Monomers (subunits): glycerol (hydrophilic
“head”) with fatty acid chains (hydrophobic “tail”)
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Triglycerides: 3 fatty acids joined to glycerol
(alcohol)
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Saturated triglycerides (fats):
◦ Have fatty acids with only single bonds between
carbon atoms
◦ Solid at room temperature
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Unsaturated triglycerides (fats):
◦ Have fatty acids with double bonds between Carbon
atoms
◦ Cause fatty acid to bend
◦ Liquid at room temperature
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Phospholipids: 2 fatty
acids joined to glycerol
(alcohol)
◦ Ex: cell membrane
(barrier between inside &
outside of the cell)
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Waxes: many fatty acids joined to glycerol
(alcohol)
◦ Ex: earwax, surface of some plant leaves
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3 functions
◦ Store long-term energy
◦ Insulation
◦ Make up cell membranes
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Food Examples:
◦ Oil, Butter, Steak, Bacon
http://www.brainpop.com/health/nutrition/fats
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Made of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
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Monomers (subunits) are amino acids; only 20
different amino acids exist
Structure of an Amino Acid
◦ 1. Amino Group (end)
◦ 2. Carboxyl Group (end)
◦ 3. R- Group (middle) *changes*
Tryptophan
Serine
Leucine
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Dipeptides: 2 amino acids joined by a peptide
bond
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Polypeptides: many amino acids joined by
peptide bonds
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4 Functions
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Transport Oxygen in blood stream (hemoglobin)
Provide immunity (antibodies)
Muscle Contraction
Speed up chemical reactions (enzymes)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JnlULOjUhSQ
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Food examples:
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Fish
Meat
Peanut butter
Milk
Rice
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Enzymes
◦ Catalysts: Special proteins that speed up chemical
reactions by lowering the energy needed to start the
reaction
◦ Enzyme names end in “–ase”
 Ex: catalase, sucrase, lactase
Enzyme Video
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Enzymes act on specific substrates
◦ Substrate: substance that the enzyme breaks down
 Each substrate fits into the active site. (Like a lock & key)
◦ Active Site: Region where enzyme and substrate bind
together
Products:
the substrate broken down
after the enzyme has acted on it
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ENZYMES ARE NOT CHANGED OR USED IN
THE REACTION!
They go on to carry out the same reactions
again & again.
http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp06/0602001.html
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Denature: when an enzyme changes
shape due to a change in temp, pH, or
other factor preventing binding
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Made of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen,
Nitrogen, Phosphorus
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Subunits are called nucleotides
◦ Made up of a 5-carbon sugar, phosphate, and
nitrogen base
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Function: store genetic information in cells
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Examples: DNA and RNA