Ch 12 Renaissance PPT

Download Report

Transcript Ch 12 Renaissance PPT

Chapter 12
Recovery and
The Age of the
“…As if on a given signal, splendid talents are stirring.”
--Erasmus, 1517
“…This is the worst
age of history.”
--Erasmus, 1536
Best of times?…Worst of times?
Meaning and Characteristics of
the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance = Rebirth
Jacob Burkhardt (Swiss)
Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860)
QuickTime™ and a
are needed to see this picture.
Three Distinct Characteristics
1. Humanism: Rebirth of Greco-Roman culture (writings,
art, history, politics, philosophy)
2. Individualism: Emphasis on individual ability (man as
3. Changes in Artistic Style: A break from the medieval
past in terms of technique and content.
“The Best” The Artistic Renaissance
Early Renaissance
Masaccio (1401 – 1428)
 The Tribute Money
Donato di Donatello (1386 – 1466)
 David
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 – 1446)
 Church of San Lorenzo
Sandro Botticelli (1444 - 1510)
Birth of Venus
Leonardo da Vinci (1452 – 1519)
 Last Supper
Raphael (1483 – 1520)
 School of Athens
Michelangelo (1475 – 1564)
 The Sistine Chapel
“The Best” Literature of the Renaissance
The Literary Giants
The Classical Scholars
• Boccaccio
• Leonardo Bruni
• Desiderius Erasmus
• Lorenzo Valla
• Cervantes
• Petrarch
• Rabelais
The Important Thinkers
• Laura Cereta
• Christine de Pizan
• Niccolo Machiavelli
“The Best” Scientists
• Nicholas Copernicus
• Galileo Galilei
“The Best”
Religious Figures
• Jan Hus
• Martin Luther
• John Calvin
• Teresa of Avila
• Ignatius of Loyola
“The Best”
• Architecture
• Navigation
• Printing Press
“The Worst”
• Constant Warfare
• Forced Conversions
• Public Executions
• Bloody Religious Conflicts
• Destruction of Civilizations
• New Slave Trade
Why Italy?
• Geography
• Urbanization
• Social Structure
• Political Structure
The Balance of Power Among the
Italian City-States
In the 15th century,
five powers dominated
the Italian peninsula:
Florence, Milan, Papal
States, Venice, Naples
City patriotism and
competition for power
among cities
prevented political
centralization on the
Italian peninsula
Balance of power:
Weaker states ally
with other states. No
single state dominates
-- modern diplomacy
Republic of Florence: Birthplace of
the Renaissance
(Includes Republic of Genoa)
Cosimo de’ Medici
(1389 - 1464)
Dominated by the Medici
Cosimo de’ Medici allied with
other powerful families to
become the unofficial ruler
Wealthy patron of
Helped found the Florentine
Platonic Academy.
Many of the great names of
the Renaissance made their
name in Florence.
Intellectual Change
Humanism: The study of man and his potential
Secularism: Focus on the here and now, less on the
afterworld. Writings emphasize desire for power, prestige,
wealth, status. Rewards to be reaped here on earth.
The Classics: A revival of the works of Ancient Greece
and Rome. Collectors scoured monasteries, ruins-anywhere--for evidence of the ancient times. This revival
would be reflected in the art and architecture of the period.
Individualism: Focus on “man as man”--his ability to
think, learn, and act. Virtu: Petrarch writes about love to
his sweetheart Laura. Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier,
is a “how-to” guide for the ideal Renaissance man.
Power: Machiavelli preached “power politics” but there
were other tools that could be used to dominate
everything from the globe (cartography), to sound
(musical notation), to abstract space (3-D perspective in
painting), to people (exploration and colonization).
Humanist Writers
Petrarch (1304-1374):
The “Father of Humanism”
Considered the first modern writer
Called the middle ages the “Dark Ages”
Influenced by works of Cicero
Wrote in the Italian vernacular
Works: Laura (Love Poems), Letters to the
Ancient Dead (Letters to ancient Roman writers
Boccaccio (1313-1375): The Decameron
• His most famous work--consisted of 100 earthly
tales on Italian life, some irreverent and lewd. Best
surviving descriptions of the Black Death.
Humanist Writers
Leonardo Bruni
First to use the term
A civic humanist--served
as chancellor in Florence
and wrote a history of
Florence, History of the
Florentine People, on
which he labored for 30
years. Believed there
were lessons to learn from
history. Past events were
the result of human, not
divine, activity.
Humanist Writers
Lorenzo Valla: On the False
Donation of Constantine
(1440) questioned land the
Church claimed was given to
it by Emperor Constantine,
and Elegances of the Latin
Language (1444) became
the standard textbook for
writing throughout Europe.
Humanist Writers
Marsilio Ficino (1433-99)
At the behest of Cosimo de’ Medici he founded the
Platonic Academy (translating Plato’s works into
Latin for the first time).
Pico della Mirandola (1463-94)
His Oration on the Dignity of Man is perhaps the most
famous Renaissance work on the nature of man and
emphasizes man’s gift of “reason” which gives them the
ability to “rise upward towards the angels.”
Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529)
The Book of the Courtier (1528): The most important work
on Renaissance education. Specified the qualities you
need to be a true gentleman (including physical and
intellectual abilities--musician, dancer, poet, warrior).
Rejected “crude” behaviors--spitting, eating without
utensils, wiping one’s nose with one’s sleeve, etc.
Machiavelli and the New
Niccolo Machiavelli (1469 – 1527)
The Prince (1513)
The quintessential treatise of the 16th century on
the acquisition, maintenance and expansion of
political power. Considered the first modern work
of political science
“The ends justify the means”
“Better to be feared than loved”
Rulers should behave like a “lion (aggressive and
strong) and a fox (cunning and practical).”
What does it mean to behave Machiavellian?
Humanist Writers…
Remember the Ladies
QuickTime™ and a
are needed to see this picture.
Laura Cereta (1469 - 1499)
Daughter of a nobleman and sent away at age 7
to be educated in a convent. At age 9 she
returned home to care for her five younger siblings
and study from her father who tutored her in math,
Latin, and Greek.
Married at 15, her husband dies two years later
from the plague.
Plunges into a life of learning and writing. Wrote
an important defense of humanist study for
women. She died unexpectedly at age 30.
Considered a forerunner to the feminist movement
of the Enlightenment.
Humanist Writers…Remember
the Ladies
Christine de Pizan (1365-1429)
Born in Venice, moved to France as a child.
First woman to write professionally and the first
published feminist
She was well educated thanks to her progressive
father (a physician and astrologer who served King
Charles V of France)
By age 25 she was a widow with three children and
decided to pursue a literary career.
She wrote the only contemporary tribute to Joan of
Arc, viewing her as a hero and example of the
triumph of good over evil.
Her most important work, The Book of the City of
Ladies (1405) depicted a world where women hold all
the jobs needed to run a city.
Christine de Pizan
Lecturing a group of men
Education in the Renaissance
Liberal Studies: history, moral philosophy, eloquence
(rhetoric), letters (grammar and logic), poetry, mathematics,
astronomy and music
Education of Women: Still faced significant barriers despite
some breakthroughs. Often viewed as objects of art or pawns in
marriage alliances.
Aim of Education was to create a complete citizen
Francesco Guicciardini: Wrote a History of Florence and a
History of Italy. In his Maxims and Reflections he instructs
historians to “write so that someone born in a far distant age would
have all those things as much before his eyes as did those who
were then present. This is the aim of history.”
The Printing Press
The Impact of Printing:
Invented by the Chinese but
perfected by Gutenberg in the
Johannes Gutenberg
Gutenberg-style printing press from
1568. Such presses could make 240
prints per hour.
Movable type (1445 –
Gutenberg’s Bible (1455
or 1456)
The Spread of Printing
No longer does the
church or state hold a
monopoly on education
or intellectual life
Contributes to spread of
Renaissance ideas and
Protestant Reformation
To Be Continued…
Family and Marriage in
Renaissance Italy
Arranged Marriages
Father-husband head of family
Wife managed household
Sexual Norms
p. 359
p. 359
p. 360
p. 360
p. 361
p. 361
p. 362
p. 363
p. 363
The Northern Artistic
Jan van Eyck (c. 1380 – 1441)
Albrecht Dürer (1471 – 1528)
Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride
Adoration of the Magi
Music in the Renaissance
Guillaume Dufay
p. 365
p. 366
The European State in the
The Renaissance State in Western Europe
Louis XI the Spider King (1461 – 1483)
War of the Roses
Henry VII Tudor (1485 – 1509)
Unification of Castile and Aragón
Establishment of professional royal army
Religious uniformity
The Inquisition
Conquest of Granada
Expulsion of the Jews
Central, Eastern, and Ottoman
Central Europe: The Holy Roman Empire
The Struggle for Strong Monarchy in Eastern
Habsburg Dynasty
Maximilian I (1493 – 1519)
The Ottoman Turks and the end of the
Byzantine Empire
Seljuk Turks spread into Byzantine territory
Constantinople falls to the Turks (1453)
Map 12-2, p. 367
Map 12-3, p. 368
Chronology, p. 370
The Church in the Renaissance
The Problem of Heresy and Reform
John Hus (1374 – 1415)
Urged the elimination of worldliness and corruption of the
Burned at the stake (1415)
Church Councils
The Papacy
The Renaissance Papacy
Julius II (1503 – 1513)
“Warrior Pope”
Patrons of Culture
Leo X (1513 – 1521)
Map 12-4, p. 371
p. 372
Chronology, p. 373
Timeline, p. 374
Discussion Questions
What social changes did the Renaissance bring
How did Machiavelli deal with the issue of political
How did the printing press change European society?
What technical achievements did Renaissance artists
make? Why were they significant?
What was the significance of The War of the Roses in
How did the popes handle the growing problems that
were emerging in the Church in the Fifteenth and
early Sixteenth Century?