Biochemistry PowerPoint

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Transcript Biochemistry PowerPoint

10/20 – Q of D
Intro to Biochemistry
1. What do you think is meant by
“you are what you eat”
Biochemistry Vocab
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Monomer
Polymer
Macromolecule
Carbohydrate
Monosaccharide
Disaccharide
Polysacchaide
Lipid
Fatty acid
Triglyceride
11. Oil
12. Protein
13. Amino acid
14. Peptide bond
15. Enzyme
16. Substrate
17. Active site
18. Nucleic acid
19. Nucleotide
Organic Compounds
Exs: coal, wool, wood, oil, sugar
 Over 2 million compounds
 All organic compounds contain CARBON
 Exceptions: CO and CO2

Carbon
Has an atomic number of 6
 Which means it has 6 e Can form 4 covalent bonds

Carbon
Bonds with other C or with H,O,N,S,P
 Can bond in straight chains, branched
chains, or rings

Carbon
Ring
Branched chain
Carbon variety
Carbon Video
Main idea of part 1:
Main ideas of part 2:
Main ideas of part 3:
Main ideas of part 4:
Main ideas of part 5:
(on back of notes )
CARBON VIDEO
Functional Groups

Can influence the characteristics and
chemical reactions

Ex: adding an OH functional group makes
an alcohol. Ethane becomes ethanol
ETHANE
 C2H6
 COLORLESS,
ODORLESS GAS
 PART OF NATURAL
GAS
ETHANOL
 C2H5OH
 LIQUID
 MADE DURING
FERMENTATION
 USED IN ALCOHOLIC
BEVERAGES
 USED AS AN ANTISEPTIC
Functional Group Examples
Building Molecules
 Monomer
 each individual molecule, a building block
 Polymer
 made by joining monomers together
 Macromolecule
 a large polymer

Condensation (Dehydration Synthesis)
 The process of joining monomers to make
polymers
 Must remove 1 water for every bond formed

Hydrolysis
 The process of breaking apart polymers
 Must add 1 water for every bond that is broken

Chemical/Molecular Formula
 Ex: C6H12O6

Structural Formula
Isomer
 Same chemical or molecular
formula but different structural
formula
 i.e.…same parts but put together
differently
Isomer Example:
 Simple Sugar C6H12O6
 Can be glucose, fructose or galactose
(look at picture page)
GLUCOSE
GALACTOSE
FRUCTOSE
4 Organic molecules
 Carbohydrates
 Lipids
 Proteins
 Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates

Sugars, Starches, Fiber
Carbohydrates
Composed of C H O
 Ratio of 1C:2H:1O
 60% of diet
 End in – ose
 Quick energy,
 #1 fuel source for body
 Examples:

Carbohydrates

Monosaccharides – simple sugars
 Are the building blocks (monomers) of
bigger carbohydrates
 3 most common:
1. Glucose
○ Main energy source
○ Dextrose
○ Blood sugar, IV fluids
2. Fructose
in fruit and veggies
sweetest
3. Galactose
 milk/dairy
The 3 Monosaccharides
Glucose
Fructose
Galactose
 The
formula for all 3 monosaccharides is
C6H12O6
but they are all structurally
different so they are isomers.
Disaccharides – double sugars
Formed by condensation
 Sucrose
 Lactose
 Maltose

 Sucrose – table sugar
○ Glucose + fructose
 Lactose – milk sugar
○ Glucose + galactose
○ Lactose intolerant
 Maltose – brewer’s sugar
○ Glucose + glucose
Disaccharides

Formula C12H22O11
 WHY?
C6H12O6
+ C6H12O6
C12H24O12
H2O
C12H22O11
Glycosidic Linkage
Disaccharide Picture
Glycosidic linkage
MALTOSE
Polysaccharides
complex sugars
100’s of sugars all
bonded in same
direction
100’s of sugars – but
they are bonded in
alternating directions
100’s of sugars in
branched chains.
Starch
Plant starch
 Sugars bonded in the same direction
 Examples:

Glycogen
Animal Starch
 Highly branched chains
 Stored in
liver and muscles

Cellulose
Bonded in opposite directions
 Humans cannot digest for ENERGY
 Eat for vitamins and minerals

Cellulose
Is insoluble
(doesn’t
dissolve). Also
called fiber.
Your body is
lacking the
enzyme to
break the
bonds apart
and get out the
energy.
Polysaccharides
complex sugars
100’s of sugars all
bonded in same
direction
100’s of sugars – but
they are bonded in
alternating directions
100’s of sugars in
branched chains.
Getting Energy from
Polysacccharides

Must be broken apart using the process
of hydrolysis and then the
monosaccharides can be used

The bigger the carb the longer it takes to
break down – more sustained energy
Carbs and Nutrition
Simple Carbs
Mono and disaccharides
 Sugars
 Very quick burning
 Spike in energy level
 Followed by a crash
 Make you want more of
them
 Need less in diet

Complex Carbs






Polysaccharides
Starch and fiber
Take longer to break
apart and burn
Provides a steadier/more
constant energy source
Whole grains, seeds
Need more in diet
•The goal behind carb loading
is to help our body store
glycogen.
•The more glycogen stored, the
more energy is available to us
on race/game day.
•Accomplished by increasing
carb consumption and
decreasing exercise
intensity/duration.
Carb Pit Stop

1. The monomer of a carbohydrate is ______

2. The most common monosaccharide is ___

3. The sweetest monosaccharide is _____

4. The monosaccharides have the formula___

5. They all look different so they are ________

6. Table sugar is called ____________

7. Milk sugar is called ______________

8. The bond between monosaccharides is ___

9. The formula of a dissacharide is _____

10. The polysaccharide that can’t be broken
down by humans is ___________

11. Excess sugar in humans is stored as ____

12. The type of carb found in plant cell walls is __
Fats, Oils, Waxes
Large amounts of C, H - little O
 Fats, oils, waxes
 Insoluble in water - nonpolar

Uses for Lipids
Energy storage – long term
 Insulation
 Padding for vital organs
 Cell membranes
 Waterproofing
 Buoyancy
 Healthy hair and skin
 Absorption of Vitamins A and D

 Monomers
 Fatty acids and glycerol (a type of alcohol)
 Can have 1, 2 or 3 fatty acids
 Are called monoglycerides, diglycerides
and triglycerides
Types of Fatty Acids

1. Saturated – solid, bad Exs: lard,
butter, animal fat, fat on meat
The Bad Fat Brothers

Polyunsaturated – several CC double bonds, Exs:
sunflower and corn oil

Monounsaturated – one C-C
double bond, liquid, better for
health, Exs: olive oil, canola
oil
Types of Fatty Acids
Saturated
Polyunsaturated
 Omega-3
fats
 Best fat to eat
 Protects against heart disease, acts as an anti-
inflammatory, eases muscle aches, helps the
brain
 Lack of this fat is linked to depression
 Found in tuna fish, salmon, walnuts
 Trans-Fatty Acids
 Chemically processed
 Worst type of fat to consume
 Lead to heart disease and high cholesterol
 Found in stick margarine, commercially fried
foods, packaged baked goods
 Many companies are now changing their
“formulas” to get rid of these fats
The Bad Fat Brothers
Types of Lipids

Triglycerides
 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol
 Fats – solid
Types of Lipids

Oils – lipids that are liquid at room
temperature

Waxes – waterproofing

Steroids

Cholesterol
 2 types –
○ LDL – bad
○ HDL - good
Steroid
Cholesterol
Proteins
Composed of C,H,O,N and S
 Are:

 Structural building materials (ex: muscles)
 Functional chemical compounds (enzymes)

Foods such as eggs, cheese, meat, nuts
Proteins
Made from amino acids
 There are only 20 different amino acids
 Amino acids used in different numbers
and combinations to make millions of
proteins (like letters making words)

Central Carbon
glycine
“R”
valine
“R”
leucine
“R”
alanine
“R”

Each individual is unique because of their
proteins which is determined by your DNA

Non-essential amino acids – body can
make these

Essential amino acids – body cannot make
– must be obtained through food

10 essential – children 8 – adults

These are “recycled” throughout body and
ecosystem. (fish example)
Proteins are joined together by
condensation
 2 together – dipeptide
 Many together - polypeptide


Chains have 30-3000 amino acids

Special bond between amino acids is called
peptide bond
Enzymes

Catalysts – speed up reactions so they
can occur at normal body conditions
Substrate – what is being catalyzed
 Active site –where enzyme and
substrate interact

Enzymes
Lactase Enzyme
Enzymes

Can denature – unfold the protein

Examples:
 Sucrase
 Lactase
 Lipase
Nucleic Acids
Master molecules
 2 types:

 DNA – have directions (blueprint) for making
proteins
 RNA – transfers information

3 billion nucleotides to make up DNA in
every cell in your body

Monomer is nucleotide
 3 parts
○ Phosphate
○ Sugar
○ Nitrogen base
REVIEW
Macromolecule
Polymer
Carbs
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Monomer
Bond
Uses