Types/Functions of Proteins
Contractile Proteins - are responsible for movement. Examples include actin and
myosin. These proteins are involved in muscle contraction and movement.
Enzymes - are proteins that facilitate biochemical reactions. They are often referred
to as catalysts because they speed up chemical reactions. Examples include the
enzymes lactase and pepsin. Lactase breaks down the sugar lactose found in milk.
Pepsin is a digestive enzyme that works in the stomach to break down proteins in
Hormonal Proteins - are messenger proteins which help to coordinate certain bodily
activities. Examples include insulin, oxytocin, and somatotropin. Insulin regulates
glucose metabolism by controlling the blood-sugar concentration. Oxytocin stimulates
contractions in females during childbirth. Somatotropin is a growth hormone that
stimulates protein production in muscle cells.
Structural Proteins - are fibrous and stringy and provide support. Examples include
keratin, collagen, and elastin. Keratins strengthen protective coverings such as hair,
quills, feathers, horns, and beaks. Collagens and elastin provide support for
connective tissues such as tendons and ligaments.
Transport Proteins - are carrier proteins which move molecules from one place to
another around the body. Examples include hemoglobin and cytochromes.
Hemoglobin transports oxygen through the blood. Cytochromes operate in the
electron transport chain as electron carrier proteins.
Lab 06 Hemoglobin II
– Bohr, Babies, Sickle
Today you’ll learn
• How Hb switches from O2-binding to
• How a single nucleotide change causes
• … and you’ll work on ‘your’ genetic
Acids – what are they?
• H+ donors
• ‘things’ act differently in acids/bases
Bohr, Babies, Sickle
Question # ?
What’s the deal with CO2?
Back to ‘polarity’ O=C=O
• How to dissolve it in blood?
• Just add water
• H2CO3 = carbonic acid
• HCO3- and
• Decrease blood pH
• Increase respiratory rate
Why breath hard?
• Breathing rate stay up until…
• Run up the stairs and you’ll breath
hard even after you’re done
• Blood pH rises
• How does that work?
Table under this week in Lab Calendar
It happens all the time
Genetic Disease 2&3
• Mutation is found on Calendar
• You must make sure that you are using
the amino acid change that is provided by
the TABLE on the COURSE CALANDER
for your analysis of the mutated protein
associated with your genetic disease
• If you did not do that last week, fix it now
How does a codon
‘mean’ an amino acid?
NOW in 3D!!!
• Find your Genetic Disease 3D on the
• Analyze per the rubric and your
prediction from last week
Other ‘rules’ of folding (for
last question on W.S.)
How to hydrogen interactions (H-bonds) contribute to
alpha-helix and beta-sheet?