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Transcript Renaissance_and_Reformation

Quote of the Day
"The choices we make dictate the
lives we lead. To thine ownself be
Quote of the Day
"The choices we make dictate the lives we
lead. To thine ownself be true."
-WilliamShakespeare (1564 - 1616), 'Hamlet‘
How do you think this quote emphasizes
humanism and/or Renaissance ideals?
Is it appropriate to apply to your life?
Why/Why not?
(no limit/complete sentences)
Primary Resources
• Break into groups
• Each group member analyzes one resources
and answers the questions associated with
that reading
• Pair share and compare
• Finally, be prepared to share with the class
(I’ll go over the first one with you)
What was the Renaissance?
…In the Middle Ages to praise man was equal to praising God, because man
was a creation of God. But Renaissance writers praised man himself as a
creator. They played down the sinfulness he was born with and emphasized his
ability to think and act for himself, to produce works of art, to guide the destiny
of others. They freed man from his pegged place in the medieval hierarchy,
halfway between matter and spirit, and allowed him to roam at will, through all
the levels of being, sometimes identifying himself with the brutes, sometimes
with the angels. He was seen as the ruler of nature—the lord, although not the
Lord, of creation.
This new Renaissance vision of man sprang from a heightened awareness of
self. Medieval men had been preoccupied with searching their religious souls,
but Renaissance men were much more intrigued with exploring their real life
personalities. Petrarch is a perfect example. Although his serious interests
centered on his work in discovering and editing ancient texts, Petrarch was also
interested in himself. In his letters, he wrote his reactions to love affairs and
friendship, to mountains and the flowers in his garden…
• 1) What were the limitations of men in the
Middle Ages that the Renaissance
• 2) What aspects of humanism can you see in
how Petrarch lived his life?
What was the Renaissance?
• An era in Western Europe from (a)1450
to (a)1650, dominated by two major
–Humanism: an emphasis on classical
achievements (Ancient Greece and
Rome) based on logic, reason, evidence,
art, science, math, architecture,
philosophy, literature, and drama and a
focus on the individual
–Secularism: less religious than before
Geography: Where was the Renaissance?
• Began in Italian city-states like Rome, Genoa,
Florence, Venice, and Naples that possessed:
–Wealthy merchants (who traded between
Muslims and the kings, lords, and princes
of Northern Europe)
–Access to the works of Ancient Greek and
Roman artists, scientists, mathematicians
that was preserved by the Byzantines and
Who paid for the Renaissance?
• How did Italian merchants like the Medici
family support the Renaissance?
Who paid for the Renaissance?
• How did Italian merchants like the Medici
family support the Renaissance?
• They commissioned works for themselves
and their city states … paintings, Buildings,
sculptures, etc.
• Employment=further advancement and
Medieval vs. Renaissance art
• You will see 2 paintings of Jesus.
• On your paper list painting one and two,
explain the emotions you think the artist/s is
trying to show.
• Now, label the paintings Medieval or
Renaissance. Write a few sentences
providing evidence for the painting you
labeled Renaissance.
Classical Art (Ancient Greece and Rome)
• Focused on actual people and realistic images
–Paintings/sculptures showed how humans
really looked with detailed faces, hair, hands,
feet, muscles, private parts, and clothing
• Used perspective to show certain objects
closer or farther away (3 dimensions)
• This was different from Medieval art,
which was usually about 2-dimensional,
very religious, and the artist didn’t matter.
Art: The Italian Renaissance
• How does Raphael’s “The School of
Athens” show humanism and secularism?
• How does Michelangelo’s “The Creation of
Adam” show humanism?
Politics: Renaissance monarchs and power
• Absolute Monarchy – a king who has
complete control over his gov’t. Believes in
divine right – God gave them their power
• 2 ppl who wrote abt absolute monarchies:
–Niccolo Machiavelli – Italian, wrote The
Prince - a guide on how to be a good ruler
–Thomas Hobbes – English author who wrote
Leviathan about how all rulers should use
extreme force to get whatever they want
Northern European Renaissance
(England, France, Germany, the
• In England, the Renaissance was supported
by wealthy monarchs like Henry VIII and
Queen Elizabeth I
• Many authors and artist emerged from the
Northern Renaissance including William
Shakespeare, Thomas More, Albrecht Dure,
and Jan Van Eyck.
North Cont.
• Johann GutenbergThe significance of Gutenberg’s printing press
• Explosion of printed materials
--By 1500, 40,000 titles printed and between
8-10 million copies
• The impact of movable-type
printing presses: research
and literacy
Why do you think the Bible
was the first book printed?
North Cont.
• William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
--Globe Theater
• Shakespeare returns to classical subjects and
• His history plays were the most popular at
the time
• Macbeth: ambition
• Hamlet: individualism
• Keen sensitivity to sounds
and meanings of words
The Protestant Reformation
What do you think the Protestant
Reformation was?
The Protestant Reformation
• What do you think the Protestant
Reformation was?
The Protestant Reformation
• A movement against the Catholic Church,
started by Martin Luther and his 95 Theses,
that resulted in new sects of Christianity
• Caused by the Catholic Church abusing power
– Bible was in Latin, not common vernaculars
like English, Spanish, French, Italian, German
– Clergy (church officials) were celibate men
– Popes, bishops, and priests had concubines
–The Church was selling indulgences and relics
to make money to keep the clergy rich
• Martin Luther isn’t the only one
In Switzerland John Calvin heads the
Calvinist movement and in many ways is more
strict and repressive than the Catholic Church.
English Reformation
Catholic Reformation
Witch Hunts and Persecution
The Scientific Revolution
• During the Middle Ages, the Catholic Church
taught people that the Bible and religion
were the ways to find truth
• But scientists of the Renaissance used the
experimentation and observation methods of
the Ancient Greeks, Romans, and Muslims to
discover and invent things
• This was called the scientific method
• Why would the Catholic Church dislike this?