MKM803Chapter6

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Transcript MKM803Chapter6

Creative Strategy Decisions
Group Assignment
Consider the market for compact cars. Choose
three competitors in this market.
1. Develop a positioning grid using:


Attributes
Benefits
2. Show how the multiattribute model can be
used in this market.
3. Develop a positioning statement for your
three competitors
Articulate the Message
Many ways to convey an advertising
message.
 Common to all messages are:

A creative strategy determining what the
message will say or communicate.
 Creative tactics for how the message
strategy will be executed.

An Advertising Campaign
Integrated
Interrelated
Coordinated
Marketing
Communication
Activities
Centered on a
Theme or Idea
In Different
Media
Over a Time
Period
Advertising Campaign Themes
The central message that will be
communicated
in all of the various IMC activities
Miller
Lite
“ At a place
called Miller
time”
BMW
“ The Ultimate
Driving
Machine”
Chevy
Trucks
“Like a Rock”
Successful Long-Running
Campaigns
Company or Brand
Campaign Theme
Nike
Just do it
Allstate Insurance
You’re in good hands with Allstate
Hallmark cards
When you care enough to send
the very best
Budweiser
This Bud’s for you
Intel
Intel inside
State Farm Insurance
Like a good neighbor,
State Farm is there
Chevy Trucks
Like a rock
Dial soap
Aren’t you glad you use Dial?
This ad is part of an advertising
campaign for Miller Lite Beer
Approaches to Guide the Search for
a Creative Theme
Positioning the
Brand
Use a Unique
Selling Position
Seeking the
Major Idea
Find the Inherent
Drama
Create the Brand
Image
1. Approaches to the Major Selling Idea:
USP
Unique Selling
Proposition
Benefit
Buy this
produce and
you'll benefit
this way or
enjoy this
reward
Unique
Potent
Must be unique
to this brand or
claim;
something rivals
can't or don't
offer
The promise
must be strong
or attractive
enough to
move people
2. Creating a Brand Image
Used when competing brands are so
similar it is difficult to find or create a
unique attribute
The creativity sales strategy is based on a
strong, memorable brand identity through
image advertising
Often used for products such as soft
drinks, perfume, liquor, clothing, airlines
Approaches to the Major Selling
Idea: Unique Brand Image
No Fear Ads Create a Unique Brand
Image
3. Approaches to the Major Selling
Idea: Inherent Drama
Inherent
Drama
Messages generally presented
in a warm, emotional way
Hallmark, Maytag, Kellogg
Focus on consumer benefits
with an emphasis on the
dramatic element in expressing
them
4. Approaches to the Major Selling
Idea: Positioning
Positioning
Establish a particular place in
the customer’s mind for the
product or service
Based on product attributes/
benefits, price/quality, use or
application, type of user,
problem solved
Pennzoil’s Positioning is Based on
Protection
Quaker State’s Positioning is Based
on Performance
This Ad Positions 3M as Highly
Innovative
Creative Consistency
Consistency in promotional creativity is a
key success factor so that target
audience retains the brand position.
 Involves consistency across:

Time
 Creative executions
 Advertising media
 Promotional tools
 Products

Consistency Across Executions
Canadian Creative Themes
Find unique ways of speaking to
Canadians
Canadians have a different set of social
values which influence our motivation for
consumption.
Canadians buy products for what they do
for us instead of what they say about us.
Message Appeals
Advertising
Appeals
Creative
Execution
Style
The approach used to attract
the attention of consumers
To influence consumer feelings
toward a product,
service or cause
The way an appeal is turned
into an advertising message
The way the message is
presented to the consumer
Rational Appeals
 Focus
on the consumer’s practical,
functional, or utilitarian need for
product or service.
Emphasize features and/or benefits.
 Reasons for owning or using.

 Deal with facts,
learning, and the logic of persuasion.
 Informative
Rational Appeals

The features, benefits, or evaluative
criteria important to consumers which
can serve as the basis of a rational
appeal vary:
Between product or service categories.
 Among various market segments.

Types of Rational Appeals
Feature: Focus on dominant traits of the product
Competitive: Makes comparisons to other brands
Price: Makes price offer the dominant point
News: News announcement about the product
Popularity: Stresses the brand’s popularity
A Very Direct, Side-by-Side
Comparison Ad
A Rational, “Popularity” Appeal
Emotional Appeals
Relate to the customers’ social and/or
psychological needs for purchasing a
product or service.
 Many consumer motives for purchases
are emotional.

Using Emotional Appeals

Many advertisers believe appeals to
consumers’ emotions work better at
selling brands that do not differ markedly
from competing brands.


i.e. When rational differentiation is difficult.
Advertising must resonate with the target
audience and evoke relevant processing
responses connected to the purchase
decision or consumption experience.
Appealing to Socially-Based
Feelings
Approval
Affiliation
Embarrassment
Acceptance
Status
Social-Based
Feelings
Respect
Belonging
Involvement
Rejection
Recognition
Music and Visual Effects Excite
Feelings
Transformational Ads
Feelings
Meanings
Richer
More
Exciting
Images
The ads
create . . .
It must make
the product use
experience . . .
Beliefs
Warmer
More
Enjoyable
Norwegian Uses Transformational
Advertising
Fear Appeals
Fear  An emotional response to a
threat that expresses or implies some
sort of danger.
 Ads sometimes use fear appeals to
evoke this emotional response and
arouse individuals to take steps to
remove the threat.
 Often used for social change issues.

Threat Plus Solution Gently
Persuades
Humour Appeals
Best known and best remembered of all
advertising.
 Used for many reasons:

Attract and hold consumers’ attention
 Create positive mood
 Distract receiver from counterarguing the
message

Using Humour Appeals
Strengths
Weaknesses
Using Humour Appeals
Strengths
Weaknesses
Aids Attention and
Awareness
Does Not Aid Persuasion in
General
May Aid Retention of the
Message
May Harm Recall and
Comprehension
Creates a Positive Mood
and Enhances Persuasion
May Harm Complex Copy
Registration
May Aid Name and Simple
Copy Registration
Does Not Aid Source
Credibility
May Serve As a Distracter,
Reducing Counterarguing
Is Not Effective in Bringing
About Sales
May Wear Out Faster Than
Non-humorous Ads
Clever Execution of Humour in a
Print Ad
Combined Rational and Emotional
Appeals
In many situations, creative specialists don’t
choose, but determine a method to combine
the two approaches.
 “Few purchases of any kind are made for
entirely rational reasons. Even a purely
functional product such as laundry detergent
may offer what is now called an emotional
benefit – say, the satisfaction of seeing one’s
children in bright clean clothes.”


David Ogilvy and Joel Raphaelson
Teaser Advertising

A unique example of combining rational
and emotional appeals.
Teaser Ads May Not Show the
Product
Teaser Ads Excite Curiosity
MasterCard Creates an Emotional
Bond
Source of the Message Appeal
Source  The person involved in communicating a
marketing message, either directly or indirectly.
Direct source
Indirect Source
•A spokesperson who
delivers a message
and/or demonstrates
a product or service.
•Doesn’t actually
deliver a message.
•Andre Agassi
endorsing Head tennis
rackets.
•Draws attention to
and/or enhances the
appearance of the ad.
•A model.
1. Source Credibility
Expertise
Trustworthiness
CREDIBILITY
Endorsement by Both a Celebrity
and an Expert
2. Source Attractiveness
Similarity
Similarity
Familiarity
Familiarity
Likeability
Resemblance
between the
source and
recipient of the
message
Knowledge of
the source
through
repeated or
prolonged
exposure
Affection for the
source resulting
from physical
appearance,
behaviour, or
other personal
traits
Attractive Models are Often Used in
Cosmetics Ads
Popular Celebrities Help Attract
Attention to Commercials
Risks of Using Celebrities
The celebrity may overshadow
the product being endorsed
The celebrity may be overexposed,
reducing his or her credibility
The target audience may not be
receptive to celebrity endorsers
The celebrity’s behaviour may pose
a risk to the company
Understanding the Meaning of
Celebrity Endorsers