Creative Strategy Decisions
Consider the market for compact cars. Choose
three competitors in this market.
1. Develop a positioning grid using:
2. Show how the multiattribute model can be
used in this market.
3. Develop a positioning statement for your
Articulate the Message
Many ways to convey an advertising
Common to all messages are:
A creative strategy determining what the
message will say or communicate.
Creative tactics for how the message
strategy will be executed.
An Advertising Campaign
Centered on a
Theme or Idea
Over a Time
Advertising Campaign Themes
The central message that will be
in all of the various IMC activities
“ At a place
“ The Ultimate
“Like a Rock”
Company or Brand
Just do it
You’re in good hands with Allstate
When you care enough to send
the very best
This Bud’s for you
State Farm Insurance
Like a good neighbor,
State Farm is there
Like a rock
Aren’t you glad you use Dial?
This ad is part of an advertising
campaign for Miller Lite Beer
Approaches to Guide the Search for
a Creative Theme
Use a Unique
Find the Inherent
Create the Brand
1. Approaches to the Major Selling Idea:
this way or
Must be unique
to this brand or
can't or don't
must be strong
2. Creating a Brand Image
Used when competing brands are so
similar it is difficult to find or create a
The creativity sales strategy is based on a
strong, memorable brand identity through
Often used for products such as soft
drinks, perfume, liquor, clothing, airlines
Approaches to the Major Selling
Idea: Unique Brand Image
No Fear Ads Create a Unique Brand
3. Approaches to the Major Selling
Idea: Inherent Drama
Messages generally presented
in a warm, emotional way
Hallmark, Maytag, Kellogg
Focus on consumer benefits
with an emphasis on the
dramatic element in expressing
4. Approaches to the Major Selling
Establish a particular place in
the customer’s mind for the
product or service
Based on product attributes/
benefits, price/quality, use or
application, type of user,
Pennzoil’s Positioning is Based on
Quaker State’s Positioning is Based
This Ad Positions 3M as Highly
Consistency in promotional creativity is a
key success factor so that target
audience retains the brand position.
Involves consistency across:
Consistency Across Executions
Canadian Creative Themes
Find unique ways of speaking to
Canadians have a different set of social
values which influence our motivation for
Canadians buy products for what they do
for us instead of what they say about us.
The approach used to attract
the attention of consumers
To influence consumer feelings
toward a product,
service or cause
The way an appeal is turned
into an advertising message
The way the message is
presented to the consumer
on the consumer’s practical,
functional, or utilitarian need for
product or service.
Emphasize features and/or benefits.
Reasons for owning or using.
Deal with facts,
learning, and the logic of persuasion.
The features, benefits, or evaluative
criteria important to consumers which
can serve as the basis of a rational
Between product or service categories.
Among various market segments.
Types of Rational Appeals
Feature: Focus on dominant traits of the product
Competitive: Makes comparisons to other brands
Price: Makes price offer the dominant point
News: News announcement about the product
Popularity: Stresses the brand’s popularity
A Very Direct, Side-by-Side
A Rational, “Popularity” Appeal
Relate to the customers’ social and/or
psychological needs for purchasing a
product or service.
Many consumer motives for purchases
Using Emotional Appeals
Many advertisers believe appeals to
consumers’ emotions work better at
selling brands that do not differ markedly
from competing brands.
i.e. When rational differentiation is difficult.
Advertising must resonate with the target
audience and evoke relevant processing
responses connected to the purchase
decision or consumption experience.
Appealing to Socially-Based
Music and Visual Effects Excite
create . . .
It must make
the product use
experience . . .
Norwegian Uses Transformational
Fear An emotional response to a
threat that expresses or implies some
sort of danger.
Ads sometimes use fear appeals to
evoke this emotional response and
arouse individuals to take steps to
remove the threat.
Often used for social change issues.
Threat Plus Solution Gently
Best known and best remembered of all
Used for many reasons:
Attract and hold consumers’ attention
Create positive mood
Distract receiver from counterarguing the
Using Humour Appeals
Using Humour Appeals
Aids Attention and
Does Not Aid Persuasion in
May Aid Retention of the
May Harm Recall and
Creates a Positive Mood
and Enhances Persuasion
May Harm Complex Copy
May Aid Name and Simple
Does Not Aid Source
May Serve As a Distracter,
Is Not Effective in Bringing
May Wear Out Faster Than
Clever Execution of Humour in a
Combined Rational and Emotional
In many situations, creative specialists don’t
choose, but determine a method to combine
the two approaches.
“Few purchases of any kind are made for
entirely rational reasons. Even a purely
functional product such as laundry detergent
may offer what is now called an emotional
benefit – say, the satisfaction of seeing one’s
children in bright clean clothes.”
David Ogilvy and Joel Raphaelson
A unique example of combining rational
and emotional appeals.
Teaser Ads May Not Show the
Teaser Ads Excite Curiosity
MasterCard Creates an Emotional
Source of the Message Appeal
Source The person involved in communicating a
marketing message, either directly or indirectly.
•A spokesperson who
delivers a message
a product or service.
deliver a message.
endorsing Head tennis
•Draws attention to
and/or enhances the
appearance of the ad.
1. Source Credibility
Endorsement by Both a Celebrity
and an Expert
2. Source Attractiveness
recipient of the
Affection for the
Attractive Models are Often Used in
Popular Celebrities Help Attract
Attention to Commercials
Risks of Using Celebrities
The celebrity may overshadow
the product being endorsed
The celebrity may be overexposed,
reducing his or her credibility
The target audience may not be
receptive to celebrity endorsers
The celebrity’s behaviour may pose
a risk to the company
Understanding the Meaning of