Organic Compounds

download report

Transcript Organic Compounds

Review of Naming Hydrocarbons
Based on the longest carbon chain in the compound
Prefix
Location and nature
of substituents on
chain
Example:
+
Root
+
Indicator of the number
of carbons in the
longest chain
eg. meth, eth, prop, but
Suffix
Class of organic compound
ane for alkanes
ene for alkenes
yne for alkynes
Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes
Alkane - Carbon compounds that contain only C-C single bonds
- Have the general formula CnH2n+2
Examples: H3C – CH2 – CH2 – CH2 - CH2 - CH2 –CH3
Heptane
CH3
Methane
Alkene - Carbon compounds that contain at least one C=C double bond
- Have the general formula CnH2n
Examples:
H2C = CH2
Ethene
H3C – CH = CH – CH3
2-Butene
Alkyne - Carbon compounds that contain at least one C
C triple bond
- Have the general formula CnH2n-2
Examples: H3C – C
C – CH2 – CH3
2-Pentyne
H3C – CH
CH2
1-Propyne
Organic Family: Alcohols
• Contains at least one –OH group
• The compound name ends with ol
• Commonly used as an antiseptic
General Formula
Example
1-Propanol
Interactive Model
Organic Family: Aldehydes
• Contains at least one formyl group –CH=O on the
end carbon atom
• The compound name ends in al
• Are normally colourless liquids or solids with
characteristic colours
General Formula
Example
Methanal
Interactive Model
Organic Family: Ketones
• Contains at least one keto group –C=O on a
middle carbon atom
• The compound name ends with one
• Can be used in the manufacture of plastics ex.
Acetone
General Formula
Example
Propanone
(Acetone)
Interactive Model
Organic Family: Carboxylic Acids
• Contains at least one carboxyl group –COOH
• The compound name ends in oic acid
• A large number of carboxylic acids occur naturally
in fats and oils - known as "fatty acids"
General Formula
Example
ethanoic acid
(acetic acid)
Interactive Model
Organic Family: Esters
• Formed by reactions between alcohols and
acids
• The compound name ends in oate
• Volatile fragrant substances used as
flavourings in the food industry
General Formula
Example
Methyl butanoate
(apple odour)
Interactive Model
Organic Family: Amines
• Contains at least one –NH2 bonded to any
carbon on the chain
• The compound name ends in amine
• Used in making rubber, dyes, pharmaceuticals,
and synthetic resins
General Formula
Example
Methylamine
Interactive Model
Organic Family: Ethers
• Contains two carbon atoms separated by an
oxygen atom –C-O-C
• An oxy ending is added to the shortest carbon
chain as a substituent on the longer carbon chain
• Are usually liquids with pleasant odour
General Formula
Example
Ethoxyethane
Interactive Model
Organic Family: Amides
• Contains the -CONH2 group at the end of a
carbon chain
• The compound name ends with amide
• Commonly found in the plastic, rubber, paper
industry and colour, in crayons, pencils and inks.
General Formula
Example
Ethanamide
Interactive Model