#### Transcript L25

```L 25 Electricity & Magnetism [2]
• static electricity
– the charging process
– the van de Graff generator
– electrostatic shielding
• lightning
• batteries and frogs legs
• electric circuits
1
review – electric charge
• Matter (stuff) has two basic properties
• mass  gravitational force
• charge  electric and magnetic forces
– positive charge
– negative charge
• electric forces
• like charges repel +/+ or - / • unlike charges attract + / -
• charge is measured in Coulombs [C]
• all charge is a multiple of the basic unit of charge
– we call this e = 1.6 x10-19 C charges cannot
be divided into smaller units than this.
2
One Coulomb is a HUGE charge
• To get a charge of one Coulomb
on an object we would have to
remove
6.250 x 1018
electrons from it!
• In the capacitor discharge demo, only
0.01 C of charge were involved.
3
Where is the charge?
• the charge is in atoms
– positive  protons
– negative  electrons
• matter is usually electrically neutral  it
has the same amount of positive and
negative charge
• electrons (not protons) can be transferred
from one object to another by rubbing
(friction)
4
Charging by friction
(triboelectric effect)
• If you rub plastic with cat’s fur, electrons
are rubbed onto the plastic making it
negative
• if you rub glass or plastic with silk,
electrons are rubbed off the glass making
it positive
• the charge can be transferred to other
objects.
• only the electrons can be transferred
5
The charging process
• an object is charged positive (has a net
positive charge ) if electrons are removed
from it
• an object is charged negative (has a net
negative charge) if electrons are
transferred to it
• charges can be transferred from
conductors or non-conductors, but they
can only move through conductors.
6
Example
• Object A has a charge of -5 C and object B has a
charge of +5 C. If -10 Coulombs of negative
charge are transferred from object A to object B.
What is the final charge on each object?
-5 C
-10 C
A
+5 C
B
• ANSWER: Object A has a net charge of +5 C and object B
has a net charge of -5 C.
+5 C
–5 C
A
B
• Note that the net charge (=0) is the same before and after
7
Attracting uncharged objects
+
+
+
+
uncharged
metal sphere
• A negatively charged
rod will push the
electrons to the far
side leaving the near
side positive.
• The force is attractive
because the positive
charges are closer to
the rod than the negative
charges
8
Can attract nonconductors also
• Even though nonconductors do not have
free electrons that can move around, the
molecules can be polarized – the positive
and negative charges can be separated
slightly
++
++
++
++
9
The Magic Wand
2x4
We can cause the 2 x 4 to move
with electric forces
10
You can bend water with charge!
•The water molecule
has a positive end and
a negative end; it is
always polarized
charged rod
•When a negative rod is
brought near the stream
of water, all the positive
ends of the water molecules turn to the right
and are attracted to the
negative rod.
O
--
+
H
stream of water
+
H
11
Seeing the effects of charge:
the electroscope
• the electroscope is a simple
device for observing the
presence of electric charge
• it consists of a small piece of
metal foil (gold if possible)
suspended from a rod with a
metal ball at its top
• If a negatively charged rod is placed near the ball,
the electrons move away because of the repulsion.
12
The two sides of the metal foil then separate.
Danger High Voltage !
• The van de Graff can
charge the sphere to
more than 50,000 volts!
• This is enough to cause
discharges to the
surrounding air 
ionization or breakdown
• The sparks excite air
molecules which give off
light
13
Electric Potential  voltage
9 Volt
battery
• The amount of charge on a
charged sphere can be
measured in terms of its
electric potential or voltage
• the more charge that is on the
sphere, the higher its voltage
• electric potential is measured in
VOLTS
• if I connect a 9 V battery to
the sphere and the ground, it
will have a potential of 9 V
14
Lightning- outdoor spark





causes 80 million
dollars in damage each
year in the US
On average, kills 90
people a year in the US
lasts only a thousandth
of a second
carries up to 200,000 A
causes the thunder!
15
development of a lightning bolt
charge
separation
stepped
streamer
streamer
lightning
bolt 16
Electrostatic shielding
17
Electrostatic shielding
• The effect of the high voltage on the van
de Graff generator stops on the outside of
the metal cage  Homer is SAFE!
• Being inside your car during a lightning
storm offers you some protection
• radio signals cannot penetrate through a
metal enclosure
• the metal bars (rebar) that reinforce the
concrete in walls can also interfere
18
Conductors and Non- Conductors
Metals (copper, aluminum, iron) are
conductors of electricity  they allow
current (moving free electrons) to pass
through them
Plastics, wood, ceramics, and glass are
non-conductors (or insulators)  they do
not let electricity flow through them  they
have no free electrons to move around
19
Pure water is non-conducting
• clean water will not conduct electricity
• if salt or acid is added, however, it will
conduct electricity
H2O
carbon electrodes
20
A salt water solution is a conductor
• When salt NaCl (sodium chloride) is
added to water H2O, the NaCl molecule
dissociates into a positive ion Na+, and a
negative ion Cl- .
• Thus the solutions contains both positive
and negative ions, both of which can
conduct electricity.
• Electric current can pass through dirty
bath water and through you also!
• we are conductors – water + Na+ + Cl–
21
Gas discharges
When a high voltage is applied to a gas-filled tube, the gas
can become ionized, one or more electrons are separated from
each atom. Since positive and negative charges are present
the ionized gas conducts electricity. The gas atoms are excited
and emit light of a color characteristic of the gas.
PLASMA
Gas in
tube
not blood!
High Voltage
Source
22
examples of electrical discharges
the Aurora
fluorescent lamp
neon lights
23
applications of electrostatics
• Xerox copiers use
electrostatic attraction to
put the ink droplets on the
paper
• electrostatic precipitators
use the attraction of
charged dust to remove
dust particles from smoke.
• can be used to hold