Unit Eight Seminar
Welcome Back! Only one seminar
Unit 7 Papers
Unit Eight Discussion Board
How, and to what extent should the concerns
about the ethics of factory farming influence
Andy Stewart's choice?
How, and to what extent, should ecological
concerns about energy and resource
consumption influence Andy Stewart's choice
How, and to what extent, should debates about
the moral status of animals influence Andy
Seminar Question 1
Which Environmental Theory?
Presented by Aldo Leopold
Argues that the “land” encompasses the
entire natural world.
Argues humans are part of not only a
natural order in nature but an ethical
system as well.
Thus, ethics is extended to nature as well
as to other humans.
Ultimate goal is to preserve integrity and
beauty of nature.
Applies moral worth to conscious beings
such as animals but not plants.
Considers the ability to feel pain and
emotions as the foundation for rights.
Animals should only be harmed when
basic human needs are at risk.
Extends moral value to all living things.
This includes nonsentient animals and
Interests of living things are considered
along with human interests and weighed
against the interests of all other living
Argues that the degradation of the
environment is the fault of men and
Sexism and environmental abuses
share a common cause and thus only
feminism can help address both
The most common approach to
environmental ethics in history.
Sees the natural world as a resource for
Arguments are made for conservation,
stewardship, and management of the
environment from all ethical perspectives.
Care for environment is seen as being
essential for the wellbeing of humanity and
Common Arguments for
Humans are highest form in nature.
Humans granted dominance by God.
Humans granted dominance by
Humans can reason more than animals.
Human civilization is more important
Morality is a human concept and thus
only exists in the human world.
Developed by Arne Naess.
Considers the interests of nature to be
beyond the interests of humans.
Argues for drastic reduction in human
Rejects utilitarian views of
environmentalism as well as
stewardship views of traditional religion.
Ethical Philosophies for Animal Rights
Utilitarian: Question of pleasure/pain
equation. Using animals causes them
more pain and thus violates the principle
of utilitarianism (Peter Singer’s
Is this really the result of the calculation?
Kantian Rights: Animals have moral
worth and value and thus should be
granted rights just as humans are
granted rights (Tom Regan’s view).
If animals have moral worth does it
follow that they should have rights just
as humans do?
Conflict of Rights
Does the Right of Humans outweigh the
Rights of Animals? Why or why not?
Is it right to use animals for testing
medicines that can save human lives?
Is it right to use animals as a food
Is it right to harm animals for the
pleasure of human entertainment
(hunting, rodeos, bull fighting, ect.)?
How do we Determine Animal Rights?
Why do we care more about more
complex and more “human” like animals
than we do other less complex
Do we assign rights based on human
wants and desires?
If not, on what basis are they
Thank You and Goodnight!