Kohlberg PPT

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Transcript Kohlberg PPT

Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral
Who was Lawrence Kohlberg?
1927 - 1983
• Born in New York City in
• Graduated from the
University of Chicago in
one year.
• Attended Yale and
earned a PhD in
• Became fascinated by
moral development in
• Theorized six stages of
human moral
Stage #1:Obedience and
Punishment Orientation
Morality is based upon the
physical punishment that
follows an action, rather
than right or wrong. The
concern is for self - "Will I
get into trouble for doing
(or not doing) it?" Good
behavior is associated
with avoiding punishment.
EX: The child won’t grab the
candy at the supermarket
for fear of being spanked.
Stage #2: Relativist Orientation
• The concern is "What's in
it for me?" Action is
judged right if it helps in
satisfying one's needs or
involves a fair exchange.
EX: A mother tells her child:
“If you are quiet at the
mall, I will buy you an ice
Stage #3: Good Boy/Nice Girl
People should live up to the
expectations of the family
and community and
behave in "good" ways.
Good behavior means
having good motives and
interpersonal feelings
such as love, empathy,
trust, and concern for
EX: Volunteering at a
nursing home is the right
thing to do.
Stage #4: Law and Order
While stage three actions
are more concerned with
pleasing your family,
stage four is associated
with following society as a
whole. Emphasis is spent
on obeying laws to
maintain social order.
EX: If you drink and drive
your endangering the
lives of others on the
road, not just yourself.
Stage #5: Social Contract
At stage 4, people want to
keep society functioning.
However, a smoothly
functioning society is not
necessarily a good one.
Nazi Germany was a well
organized society, but nine
million were murdered in
the process.
At stage 5, people begin to
ask, "What makes for a
good society?" They begin
to think about society
considering the rights and
values that a society ought
to uphold.
EX: It is important for the
world to stop the killing in
Darfur because we are
morally obligated to stop
Stage #6: Universal Ethical
Principal Orientation
As human beings we are
obligated to live by the
principal that “all men are
created equal” regardless of
race, religion, sexual
orientation, or political
belief. Justice is universal,
so unjust laws must be
EX: Rosa Parks refused to sit
in the back of the bus
because it was an unjust
law discriminating against
African Americans.
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral
Development in Huck Finn
Huck must ultimately
decide whether he
should return Jim
back to his master.
Huck must choose
between obeying the
laws of his society
(support slavery), or
being loyal to his
friend Jim (help him to
escape to freedom).
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