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Asteridae
Solanaceae -- tomato/potato family (85-96/2800; Cosmopolitan, best developed
in South American tropics)
Habit herbs, shrubs and trees
Leaves mostly alternate; simple to deeply divided or once or twice pinnate;
estipulate
Inflorescences cymose or solitary
Special floral characters flower perfect and actinomorphic; anthers often
connivent around style (Solanum) and dehiscing by terminal pores
Calyx 5 (4-7) sepals distinct or connate
Corolla 5 (4-7) petals connate (=sympetalous); actinomorphic
Androecium 5 (2, 4-7) stamens, filaments adnate to petals (=epipetalous); some
with poricidal dehiscence
Gynoecium 2 (3-5) carpels; connate; superior (rarely half inferior); 2 locules
with many axile ovules in each locule OR 1 locule with many parietal
ovules; style simple or only scarcely lobed
Fruit= berry or septicidal capsule
(Floral formula: Ca
5
Co
5
A
5
G
2
)
Asteridae
Solanaceae -- comments
Comments: Many important cultivated members including: tomato
(Lycopersicon esculentum), potato (Solanum tuberosum), eggplant
(Solanum melongena), peppers (Capsicum spp.), tobacco
(Nicotiana), and petunias (Petunia).
Various members contain high contents of alkoloids and the name
Nightshade probably derives from the potentially lethal side of these.
Belladonna means “pretty lady” and women used to dose themselves
with an extract of this plant to dilate their eyes and appear more
desirable. Mandrake (Mandragon), nicotine (tobacco), and Jimsonweed (Datura) are all members of this family.
Asteridae
Scrophulariaceae -- the figwort or monkey flower family (190/
4000; Cosmopolitan, most abundant in temperate regions and tropical alpine habitats)
Habit herbs, less frequently shrubs or trees
Leaves alternate, opposite or whorled; simple to deeply divided or compound;
estipulate
Inflorescences often racemose or cymose
Special floral characters flowers perfect and zygomorphic, tubular corolla,
anthers 4 (2+2, filaments unequal) and sometimes with a staminode (if
present often pubescent).
Calyx 5 sepals, distinct or variously connate; zygomorphic
Corolla 5 petals, connate (=sympetalous), zygomorphic, often bilabiate
Androecium 4 or 2 (5) stamens, distinct; filaments adnate to corolla
(=epipetalous)
Gynoecium 2 carpels; connate; superior; 2 locules with 2-many axile
ovules/locule; 1 style with bilobed stigma
Fruit= mostly a septicidal capsule
(Floral formula: Ca
5
Co
5
A
4 or 2
G
2
)
Asteridae
Scrophulariaceae -- comments
Some genera: Aragoa, Bacopa, Bartsia, Calceolaria, Castilleja, Lindernia, Mimulus,
Pedicularis, Verbascum, Veronica.
Comments: The Orobanchaceae is generally considered the
parasitic/saprophytic counterpart/sistergroup to the Scrophulariaceae
and sometimes treated as a subfamily within Scrophulariaceae. Indian
paintbrush (Castilleja), a partial root parasite, is an example of a
scroph that links the two families together. The Scrophulariaceae is
important for its the production of cardiac glycosides from Digitalis
(foxglove) and for ornamentals which include items such as veronica
(Veronica), penstemons (Penstemon), butter and eggs (Linaria),
monkey flowers (Mimulus), slipper flower (Calceolaria), etc.
Asteridae
Lamiaceae -- the mint family (200/ 2000; Cosmopolitan, especially common in
Mediterranean habitats)
Habit aromatic, punctate herbs, less frequently shrubs or trees
Leaves opposite or rarely whorled; simple to deeply divided or pinnate;
estipulate; terete (square) stems
Inflorescences axillary cymes or verticils, sometimes headlike or solitary, various
Special floral characters bilabiate corolla with 4 stamens fused to the petals,
gynobasic style, and 4-lobed ovary that matures into nutlets
Calyx 5 sepals, variously connate; zygomorphic
Corolla 5 petals, connate (=sympetalous), zygomorphic, often bilabiate
Androecium 4 or 2 stamens, distinct; filaments adnate to corolla (=epipetalous)
Gynoecium 2 basally connate carpels (appear as four because of a false
septum); superior; 4-lobed or divided into 4 locules with 1 basal-axile
ovule/ locule; 1 gynobasic style, 2-lobed near apex
Fruit= schizocarp which splits into four nutlets
(Floral formula: Ca
5
Co
5
A
4 or 2
G
2
)
b- family Asteridae
Rubiaceae -- the madder or coffee family (450-606/ 6500; Mostly tropical)
Habit herbs, shrubs, woody vines or trees
Leaves opposite or whorled; simple; stipulate; stipules aften fused together,
forming interpetiolar stipules
Inflorescences variously cymose, sometimes solitary or in heads
Special floral characters flowers perfect, regular, often showy
Calyx 4 or 5 sepals, connate or distinct
Corolla 4 or 5 petals, connate (=sympetalous), actinomorphic
Androecium 4 or 5 stamens, distinct; filaments adnate to corolla (=epipetalous)
Gynoecium 2 carpels, connate; inferior ovary; 2 locules with many axile
ovules/locule; 1 style, undivided
Fruit= berry, drupe, capsule, or schizocarp
(Floral formula: Ca
4-5
Co
4-5
A
4-5
G
2
)
Asteridae
Asteraceae -- the sunflower family (1400-1540/ 20,000-23,000; Cosmopolitan)
Habit herbs or shrubs (woody vines, stem-succulents, or trees)
Leaves alternate or opposite; simple to bipinnate; estipulate
Inflorescences involucral heads, indeterminate (with oldest flowers to outside),
often 2 aggregated into various cymose clusters, sometimes racemose
clusters
Special floral characters small flowers (florets) clustered together on a
receptacle subtended by involucral bracts (phyllaries). Some florets
subtended by receptacular bracts (chaff scales or paleae)
Calyx modified into a pappus, extremely variable in features, maybe absent
Corolla 5 petals, connate (=sympetalous); actinomorphic to strongly zygomorphic
Androecium 5 stamens; filament distinct with anthers connate into a tube
surrounding the style; filaments adnate to corolla (=epipetalous). Anthers
dehisce to the inside of the anther tube, anther sacs can be modified
apically or basally with appendages
Gynoecium 2 carpels, connate; inferior; with 1 locule and 1 basal ovule; 1 style
usually branched near apex. Style elongates as flower opens, and
presents pollen brushed from the anther tube.
Fruit= achene
(Floral formula: Ca x(0) Co
5
A
5
G
2
)
Asteridae
Asteraceae --
comments
Flowers you will see in today’s lab:
Disk flowers: actinomorphic or bilabiate; usually perfect; can be in
heads by themselves or with other kinds of flowers.
Ray flowers: strongly zygomorphic (3-lobed); usually imperfect or
sterile; always borne in heads with disk flowers
Ligulate flowers: strongly zygomorphic (5-lobed); always perfect;
usually borne in heads by themselves
Check text for two others not seen today
Asteridae
Asteraceae --
comments
For such a large family (second largest flowering plant family),
relatively few members are of major economic importance:
Vegetables:
lettuce (Lactuca sativa)
endive (Cichorium endiva)
artichoke (Cynara scolymus)
Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus)
Seeds/oil:
sunflower (Helianthus annuus)
safflower (Carthamus baeticus)
niger seed (Guizotia abyssinica)
Ornamentals: chrysanthemums (Dendranthema spp.)
marigolds (Tagetes spp.)
pot marigold (Calendula spp.)
bachelor’s buttons (Centaurea cyanus)
Cosmos, Dahlia, Ageratum, Gazania, Helianthus, Zinnia
No Fun:
Ambrosia spp. (ragweeds) MAJOR cause of hayfever suffering
Dandelions (Taraxacum officinale): bane of crochet and golf greens