Inquiry into Life Twelfth Edition

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Transcript Inquiry into Life Twelfth Edition

9.1 Plant Organs
• Flowering plants are
________________________
• All share common structural features
• Root system = roots
• Shoot system = _____________________
9.1 Plant Organs
• _________________ is defined as a
structure that contains different tissues
and performs one or more specific
functions
• _______________________________are
the vegetative organs common to plants
• Flowers, seeds, and fruits are structures
involved in ____________________
9.1 Plant Organs
• Roots
– On average, a tree’s roots will extend two to
four times the diameter of the aboveground
portion of the tree
• ___________________ plant in soil
• ___________________ water and minerals
• Root __________________
– Projections from epidermal root hair cells
– Greatly increase absorptive capacity of root
9.1 Plant Organs
• Other Functions of Roots
– Modified for food _____________________
• Yams and sweet potatoes
– Store ____________________
– Produce _______________________
9.1 Plant Organs
• Stems
– Main _______________ of a plant
– Terminates in tissue that allows the stem to
elongate and produce leaves
– __________________ occur where leaves
are attached to the stem
• Internode is region between nodes
9.1 Plant Organs
• Stems
– Have vascular tissue that transports water
and minerals
• _________________ - nonliving cells that form a
continuous pipeline for water and mineral transport
• _________________- living cells that join end to
end for organic nutrient transport
– In some plants, stems carry on
photosynthesis, or store water and nutrients
9.1 Plant Organs
• Leaves
– Major part of the plant that carries on
________________________
– Usually broad and flat
• _______________ - Wide portion of foliage leaf
• _______________- Stalk attaches blade to stem
• Leaf Axil - Axillary bud originates
– __________________ plants lose their leaves
every year
– Evergreens retain their leaves for two to
seven years (gymnosperms)
9.2 Plant Tissue
• All the tissue types in a plant arise from
___________________ tissue
• _____________________ tissue allows
plants to grow their entire lives
• Retains cells that ever have the ability to
divide and produce more tissues
9.2 Plant Tissue
• ________________meristem
– Meristematic tissue present in a
_______________ tip and a
_________________ tip
– Causes an increase in length called primary
growth
9.2 Plant Tissue
• __________________ tissue
– Forms the outer protective covering of a plant
• __________________ tissue
– Fills the interior of a plant
• __________________ tissue
– Transports water and nutrients in a plant and
provides support
9.2 Plant Tissue
• _________________ Tissue
– Contains single layer of closely packed
epidermal cells
– Epidermal cells exposed to air have a waxy
_______________________
• Minimizes water loss
• Protection from disease
– Root epidermis has root hairs
• Absorb water
• Anchor the plant
9.2 Plant Tissue
• Epidermal Tissue
– Guard cells surround ______________
• Gas exchange
9.2 Plant Tissue
• _______________ Tissue
– Forms the bulk of a plant
– Fills the space between the epidermal and the
vascular tissue
– Most of the _______________ and
________________________ takes place in
ground tissue
– Also responsible for producing hormones,
toxins, pigments, and other specialized
chemicals
9.2 Plant Tissue
• Vascular Tissue
– ___________________ transports water and
minerals from the roots to the leaves
– ___________________ transports sucrose
and other organic compounds (including
hormones) from the leaves to the roots
– Xylem and phloem are complex tissues
because they are composed of two or more
types of cells
9.2 Plant Tissue
• Vascular system extends from roots
through stems and leaves
• In the roots, the vascular tissue is located
in the vascular _______________
• In the stem, it forms vascular
___________________, and in the leaves,
it is found in leaf veins
9.3 Monocot Versus
Eudicot Plants
• Flowering plants are divided into two
groups dependent upon the number of
cotyledons are present in the
___________________ plant
– __________________ = seed leaves
• Monocots (one cotyledon)
• Eudicots (two cotyledons)
9.4 Organization of Roots
• Root Cap Protects Root Apical Meristem
• Three Regions
– Zone of ____________________
• Primary meristem area
• Continuously dividing cells
– Zone of ____________________
• Cells lengthen as they become specialized
– Zone of _____________________
• Fully differentiated cells
• Presence of root hairs
9.4 Organization of Roots
• Anatomy of a Eudicot Root
– ___________________
– __________________ - type of ground tissue
– ___________________ - forms a boundary
between the cortex and the inner vascular
cylinder
– Vascular Tissue
9.4 Organization of Roots
• Monocot Roots
– Have the same growth zones as eudicot
roots.
– Contains _______________, a type of ground
tissue, which is centrally located
– Pith is surrounded by a
_____________________composed of
alternating xylem and phloem bundles
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
9.4 Organization of
Roots
• Root Diversity
– ____________________) Fleshy, long single root, that
grows straight down
a. Taproot
© Dr. Robert Calentine/Visuals Unlimited
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
• Stores food
– __________________ root
system - Slender roots and
lateral branches
• Anchors plant to the soil
b. Fibrous root system
© The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc./Evelyn Jo Johnson, photographer
9.5 Organization of Stems
• Woody twigs provide a good example for
studying stem organization
– ____________________ Buds
• Contains the shoot tip protected by bud scales,
which are modified leaves
– Leaf Scars and Bundle Scars where leaves
have dropped
– ___________________ Buds
• Can give rise to branches or flowers
9.5 Organization of Stems
• ___________________ Stems
– Mature nonwoody stems
– Exhibit only primary growth
– ______________________ - vascular
bundles arranged in distinct ring
– ______________________- scattered
vascular bundles
9.5 Organization of Stems
• Woody stems
– Both primary and secondary tissues
• _________________ tissues are those new
tissues formed each year from primary meristems
right behind the shoot apical meristem
• __________________ tissues develop during the
first and subsequent years of growth from lateral
meristems: vascular cambium and cork cambium
– All plants have primary growth
– Only conifers and woody eudicots have
secondary growth (increases girth)
9.5 Organization of Stems
• Wood
– ________________________ that builds up
year after year – increase girth of tree
– In trees that have growing season, vascular
cambium are _____________during winter
• Annual ring is made up of spring wood and
summer wood
• Annual rings can provide a growth record
9.6 Organization of Leaves
• Organs of __________________ in
vascular flowering plants
• Usually consists of a flattened blade and a
____________________ connecting the
blade to the stem
• Leaf veins have a net pattern in
________________leaves and a parallel
pattern in ________________ leaves
9.6 Organization of Leaves
• Top layer of epidermis
– Often bears ____________ – protective hairs
– Has an outer waxy cuticle
– Opening of _______________ regulated by
guard cells
• Gas exchange and water loss
• Body of leaf
– __________________tissue
– Eudicots have palisade and spongy
mesophyll
9.6 Organization of Leaves
• Leaf diversity
– _________________ of a leaf can be simple
or compound
• Compound leaf divided into leaflets
– Pinnately or palmately compound
– Leaves can be ___________________
alternately, opposite or whorled
9.7 Uptake and Transport of
Nutrients
• Opening and Closing of Stomata
– Each stoma in leaf epidermis is bordered by
two ___________________
– Increased _________________ pressure in
guard cells opens stoma
– Caused by active transport of K+ into guard
cells