Important Survival Structures in Plants

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Transcript Important Survival Structures in Plants

Important Survival Structures
and Adaptations in Plants
Make a 4 column chart with the
following headings
•
•
•
•
Nutrition
Respiration
Reproduction
Response to Environment
Write down important structures and functions
that relate to these 4 concepts as we review
the Power Point
Vascular Tissue- Nutrition
• Vascular Tissue  move fluids through the
plant body
– 1. Xylem– carries water from the root to the other
parts of the plant
– 2. Phloem – transports nutrients and
carbohydrates made by photosynthesis
Vascular Tissue Chart-Nutrition
Tissue System
and Its Functions
Component Tissues
Dermal Tissue System Epidermis
• protection
Periderm (in older stems
• prevention of water loss and roots)
Ground Tissue System
• photosynthesis
• food storage
• regeneration
• support
• protection
Parenchyma tissue
Collenchyma tissue
Sclerenchyma tissue
Vascular Tissue System Xylem tissue
• transport of water and Phloem tissue
minerals
• transport of food
Location of Tissue Systems
Leaves-Nutrition
• Designed for absorbing light and carrying out
photosynthesis
• Two types of leaves:
– 1. Simple (one leaf)
– 2. Compound (many leaflets)
Leaf Functions-Nutrition
• Carries out photosynthesis
• Transpiration- evaporation of water through leaves
• Gas Exchange
– Stomata remains open enough just to allow
photosynthesis to take place
Layers of Leaf- Nutrition&Respiration
– Mesophyll spongy layer
is composed of many
chloroplasts
– Palisade mesophyll –
absorb the light
– Spongy mesophyll – air
spaces that connect the
stomata with outside
– Stomata – pore-like
openings on the
underside of a leaf to
absorb carbon dioxide
Stomata
On
Surface
of
LeafRespiration
Swollen
Small stoma
opening little
gas exchange
Guard Cells
Large stoma
opening ample
gas exchange
Flaccid (weak)
guard cells
How the stomata helps to maintain
homeostasis?
• The stomata allows for the plant to REGULATE
the exchange of gases MAINTAIN
HOMEOSTASIS
– Dependent on the availability of water
• When water is plentiful plant can accept more
water guard cells swell stomata opens gas
exchange can occur readily
• When water is NOT plentiful OR wants to conserve the
water it has plant can n
Cones in Conifer Plants- Reproduction
• Cones and pollen are used as the reproductive
structures found in gymnosperms
• Exhibit alternation of generations sporophyte
and gametophyte phases.
• http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/conten
t/chp30/30020.html
Reproduction in AngiospermsReproduction
• Also exhibit sporophyte and gametophyte
generations
• http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/ani
mations/content/angiosperm.html
Flower Parts-Reproduction
• Flowers are the
reproductive structure
in angiosperms.
Stamen-> men=male
• Male: anther+filament
• Contains pollen
• Pistil (carpel)-> female
– Stigma,style,ovary
– Ovary holds the ovules.
Seeds-Reproduction
• Seeds in plants play an
important role in
– Protection of the plant
embryo
– Prevention of drying out
of moisture within the
seed
– Provides nutrients as it
develops
Monocot vs Dicot Seeds
Summary Tutorial
• http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/
838/858365/ch03anim/3_1_6_1a.swf
How Do Plants Respond to the
Environment?
• 1-Tropism= response by a plant to an external
stimulus
–
–
–
–
Phototropism response to light
Gravitropism response to gravity
Hydrotropism response to water
Thigmotropism response to touch (surfaces like
vines wrapping around)
• 2-Hormones= auxins
– cytokinins, gibberlins, ethylene
Plant Auxins- Response to
Environment
• Auxins substances that regulate cell growth
at the tip of plant by stimulating cell
elongation.
– CytokininsStimulate cell division, and cause
dormant seeds to sprout.
– Gibberillinsdramatic increase in size (stems and
fruits)
– Ethylene Stimulate fruits to ripen
Other Environmental AdaptationsResponse to Environment
• Aquatic PlantsTissues with large air filled
spaces for oxygen diffusion
• Epiphytes-Grow directly on other plants to obtain
their nutrients Ex. Spanish Moss
• Desert Plants (Xerophytes)-Extensive roots,
reduced leaves, & thick stems stores water.
• Nutrition Specialists-Live in areas with low
concentrations of nutrients in the soil.
– Ex. Carnivorous plants (Venus Fly Trap)
– Parasites (Mistletoe)