Carbohydrates - REVISION-IB2

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Transcript Carbohydrates - REVISION-IB2

Carbohydrates
Regents Biology
CH2OH
H
O
H
OH
H
H
OH
HO
Carbohydrates:
Energy molecules
Regents Biology
2006-2007
H
OH
Carbohydrates
 Building block molecules = sugars
sugar - sugar - sugar - sugar - sugar
sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar
Regents Biology
Carbohydrates
 Function:

quick energy

energy storage

structure
 Example
glucose
C6H12O6
sucrose

sugars

starches

cellulose (cell wall)
Regents Biology
starch
Sugars = building blocks
 Names for sugars usually end in -ose
glucose
 fructose
 sucrose
 maltose
CH2OH

Regents Biology
H
O
H
OH
H
H
OH
HO
H
OH
glucose
C6H12O6
sucrose
fructose
maltose
Building carbohydrates
 Synthesis
monosaccharides
|
glucose
Regents Biology
|
glucose
2 sugars =
disaccharide
|
maltose
Building carbohydrates
 Synthesis
monosaccharides
|
glucose
Regents Biology
|
fructose
2 sugars =
disaccharide
|
sucrose
(table sugar)
BIG carbohydrates
 Starch

energy storage in plants
 potatoes
 Glycogen

energy storage in animals
 in liver & muscles
 Cellulose

structure in plants
 cell walls
 Chitin

structure in arthropods & fungi
 exoskeleton
Regents Biology
Building BIG carbohydrates
glucose + glucose + glucose… = polysaccharide
starch
(plant)
energy
storage
glycogen
(animal)
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Digesting starch vs. cellulose
starch
easy to
digest
cellulose
hard to
digest
Regents Biology
enzyme
enzyme
Cellulose
 Cell walls in plants
herbivores can digest cellulose
 most carnivores cannot digest cellulose

 that’s why they
eat meat to get
their energy &
nutrients
 cellulose = roughage
Regents Biology
Cow
can digest cellulose well;
no need to eat other sugars
Gorilla
can’t digest cellulose well;
must add another sugar
source, like fruit to diet
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Helpful bacteria
 How can cows digest cellulose?

bacteria live in their stomachs & help digest
cellulose-rich (grass) meals
Regents Biology
Let’s build some
Carbohydrates!
Regents Biology
2006-2007