History of Microbiology

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Transcript History of Microbiology

Introduction to
Microbiology
objectives
• Define microbiology
• Describe the contributions of
scientists to the conquest of
disease
• Identify basic health care
procedures used to prevent and
control disease
Microbiology
• Study of microscopic (living ) things
• E.g.
viruses, bacteria, algae, protists, fungi
History of Microbiology
• 1590 – First compound light microscope
Zacharias Janssen
History
• 1676 –first observation of bacteria
“animalcules”
Anton Von Leeuwenhoek
Spontaneous
generation or
abiogenesis
• Life can suddenly or
spontaneously arise from
decomposing nonliving matter
• Decaying meat gave rise to
maggots
• Sweat laden shirts stored with
wheat in a dark area gave rise to
mice
• Hairs from horses tail when placed
in water produced worms
Lazzaro spallananzani
Lazzaro spallanzani
• Performed experiments to
disprove the theory of
spontaneous generation.
• Conducted the boiled
meat broth experiment in
a sealed flask
History
• 1796 – First vaccine (smallpox)
Edward Jenner
History
• 1857 – Germ Theory of Disease
Louis Pasteur
Oliver wendall holmes
• Suggested that childbed fever a
highly contagious disease, might
be spread by the hands of doctors
and nurses who went from one
patient to another
Ignaz phillipp
semmelweis
obstetrician
• Sometime later, noted death rates
of patients being visited by
physicians and medical students
who had come from morgue or
autopsy room were much higher
John Tyndall
Developed a
method of
killing heat
resistant
bacteria
History
• 1867 Antiseptic Surgery
Joseph Lister
History
• 1884
Koch’s Postulates of
Disease Transmission
Robert Koch
Golden age of
bacteriology
• Pasteur, lister, and Koch
• Pasteur institute paris 1888
• Germany infective disease
institue Koch became professor
History
• 1929
Discovery of Penicillin
(first antibiotic)
Alexander Fleming
History
• 1938 – First Electron
Microscope
• The electron microscope is capable of
magnifying biological specimens up
to one million times. These computer
enhanced images of 1. smallpox, 2.
herpes simplex, and 3. mumps are
magnified, respectively, 150,000,
150,000 and 90,000 times.
History
1953 Structure of DNA Revealed
Watson & Crick
History
1954 Polio Vaccine
Jonas Salk
CHICKEN POX
• 1995
• CONTRVERSIAL
• Disease not serious enough to
warrant vaccine
• Effective about 10 years, child
becoming adult and risk catching
Haemophilus influenza
type B
• Must part of all infant/children
• 2,4,6 months
• Causes meningitis, pneumonia,
pericarditis, osteomyelitis
spread by respiratory secretions by
direct person to person contact
hepatitis
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A,B,C,D,E,F,G alphabet soup
Cure not on horizon
Good hygiene, education
Hep C stealth disease blood to
blood contact
HIV/ Aids
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Linked to several conditions
Karposis sarcoma
Pneumocystitis
Much research continues in the
U.S and around the world
Karposis sarcoma a rare skin
cancer
Emerging pathogens
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Candida albicans
Coccidiodes immitis a soil fungus
Cryptospiridia
Tuberculosis
Preventing infections
• Majority of microorganisms are
harmless
• Prevention and control of disease
is the responsibility of every
member of the health care team
• Most important good
handwashing!!!!!