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The Digestive System
By: Sophie Navarro, Chase Call, Kiana LaBella, Davin Villareal, and Gavin Aco
Crohn’s Disease
 Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It
causes inflammation of the lining of your digestive tract,
which can lead to abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, fatigue,
weight loss and malnutrition. Inflammation caused by
Crohn's disease can involve different areas of the digestive
tract in different people.
 Inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity. Before
antibiotics, people would die from peritonitis if an inflamed
appendix burst. Indications of peritonitis are called
“peritoneal signs”: tender abdomen, rebound pain (pain
when manual pressure released from examining abdomen),
board-like rigidity of abdominal muscles, no bowel sounds
(gurgles). The peritoneal membrane is very sensitive to
exposure to foreign substances. Contact with blood, bile,
urine, pus will cause peritoneal signs.
Colon Cancer
 Colon cancer is cancer of the large intestine (colon), the lower
part of your digestive system. Rectal cancer is cancer of the
last several inches of the colon. Together, they're often
referred to as colorectal cancers.
Literally, “orange-yellow” in Greek. A degenerative disease of
the liver that often develops in chronic alcoholics, but has other
causes. The name refers to the appearance of the organ.
Literally means “yellow” in French. Yellowing of the skin and
white of the eyes from a backup of bile metabolic by-products
from the blood into body tissues. May result in blockage of the
ducts draining bile from the liver into the intestines or excessive
breakdown of red blood cells. Hemoglobin from destroyed
RBC’s is broken down, and in part, ends up in bile secretions
 The opening at the far end of the digestive tract through
which stool (feces) leaves the body. It is formed from surface
areas of the surface of the body. This includes skin and part
of the intestine. The anus is lined with an external skin and a
muscular ring called the anal sphincter keeps it closed.
 A chamber that begins at the beginning of a small intestine
and ends at the anus. The rectum is usually empty because
the stool (feces) is stored higher than the descending colon.
Stool eventually moves to the rectum and this causes the
urge to move the bowels (to poop).
Large Intestine
 This consists of cecum and ascending (right) colon,
transverse colon, descending (left) colon, and sigmoid colon
(which is connected to the rectum). The large intestine can
further digest some material creating gas (fart). Bacteria
taking place in the large intestine creates important
substances such as Vitamin K, which plays an important role
in blood clotting.
Small Intestine
 The first segment of the small intestine is the duodenum,
which is hat the stomach releases food into. The duodenum
is in charge of telling the stomach when to stop eating.
Jejunum and ileum are located below the duodenum. They
are responsible for absorbing fats and nutrients. These
transform into liquid that is later mixed with water, mucus,
biles, and enzymes.
 The Pancreas is an organ that contains two types of glandular
tissue, pancreatic acini and isles of Langerhans. The acini
produces digestive enzymes whereas the isles produce
hormones. They are activated only wen they reach the
digestive tract. The three hormones produced by pancreas
are insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin.
 The gallbladder stores bile, a greenish yellow, thick, sticky
fluid consisting of bile salts, electrolytes, bile pigments,
cholesterol, and other fats. Bile has two important functions:
to assist in digestion and absorption of fats, and the
elimination of certain waste products from the body.
 The stomach is a bean-shaped hollow organ consisting of
cardia, body fundus, and antrum. Food gets to the stomach
by passing through the lower esophageal sphincter. The
upper stomach is a storage for food and the lower stomach
mixes the food with acid and enzymes.
 It is a large organ with several functions. In the liver, the food
is absorbed into the intestinal wall, which is supplied with any
tiny blood vessels. The nutrients later enter the liver veins.
The blood from thee veins are processed in two ways. Food
and bacteria are removed from the intestine and removed
from the blood, and the nutrients are further broken down to
be used by the body.
 The esophagus is a muscular channel. It is lined with mucous
membranes that connect the throat with the stomach. Food
and fluids propel through the esophagus by not just gravity,
but peristalsis as well. The higher and lower esophagus
features open and close. These prevent you from vomiting.
 The pharynx, also known as the throat, lies behind and below
the mouth. Swallowing food and fluids begins voluntarily,
and continues automatically. The epiglottis, a small flap,
closes to prevent food and fluids from going down the
windpipe, towards the lungs.
 The mouth, aka the oral cavity, is a hollow cavity that allows
food and air to enter the body. It contains the teeth, tongue,
and the salivary glands that work together to aid in digestion
and indigestion of food. The mouth also plays a major
movement of speech from the tongue, lips, and cheeks
Salivary Glands
 It produces saliva to moisten the insides of your mouth.
 How does Jaundice affect the digestive system?
 How does the liver contribute to the digestive system?