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Transcript FrankK_EAM_Canada_12Feb2013

How Canadian federal agencies
perceive and are currently
implementing EAM
(two case studies)
Presentation by K. Frank
Bedford Institute of Oceanography
Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO)
Dartmouth, Nova Scotia
DFO’s Oceans Mandate
Oceans Act (established in 1997) affirms
DFO as lead federal authority for oceans:
– Lead and facilitate in the development and
implementation of
• national oceans management strategy
• integrated management plans, and
• national system of MPAs
– Coordinate with other
EAM Framework: Objectives and
EAM Framework: Objectives
Keep fishing mortality moderate
Productivity: Do not cause unacceptable reduction in
productivity so that components can play their role in
the functioning of the ecosystem
Allow sufficient escapement from exploitation for
Limit disturbing activity in important reproductive
Control alteration of nutrient concentrations affecting
primary production
Control unintended incidental mortality for all species
Biodiversity: Do not cause unacceptable reduction in
biodiversity in order to preserve the structure and
natural resilience of the ecosystem
Distribute population component mortality in relation
to component biomass
Minimize unintended introduction and transmission of
invasive species
Control introduction and proliferation of
Minimize aquaculture escapes
Manage area disturbed of habitat
Limit introduction of pollutants
Habitat: Do not cause unacceptable modification to
habitat in order to safeguard both physical and
chemical properties of the ecosystem
Minimize introduction of debris
Control noise disturbance
Control light disturbance
• Intention of DFO to implement an EAM in
a step by step, evolutionary way, building
on existing management processes
• Advances will be made incrementally,
additional levels of integration being added
as required to take account of cumulative
effects of multiple uses
• DFO is implementing a regional EAM
Framework by incorporating it into
Integrated Fisheries Management Plans
– Purpose - to provide a planning framework for
conservation and sustainable use of fisheries
What They Contain
• Overview of the fishery
• Stock assessment and ecosystem
• Fishery’s social, cultural and economic
• Management issues
• Management objectives
• Strategies and measures for
implementing objectives
• Access and allocation arrangements
• Stewardship arrangements
• Compliance plan
• Plan for monitoring and reviewing6
History and Availability
• First introduced at DFO in mid 1990s
• Intention was to complete IFMPs for all major
– Completing IFMPs and keeping them up-to-date remains an
ongoing challenge
• Guidance on content continues to evolve
– Current guidance and template available on DFO website
• Completed IFMPs are available to the public
– IFMPs (guidance, template, documents):
Fisheries Management Plans by Region
Maritimes Region
American Lobster – 2011
Atlantic herring – 2003-2006
Atlantic Seal - 2011-2015
Atlantic Mackerel - Effective 2007
Bluefin Tuna - Effective 2007
Bluefin Tuna - Effective 2008
Atlantic Swordfish and Other Tunas - 2004-06
Newfoundland and Labrador Region
Atlantic Seal - 2011-2015
Atlantic Seal - 2006-2010
Atlantic Mackerel - Effective 2007
Bluefin Tuna - Effective 2007
Bluefin Tuna - Effective 2008
Atlantic Swordfish and Other Tunas - 2004-06
Northern Shrimp - Effective 2003
Northern Shrimp - Effective 2007
Snow Crab (2009-2011)
Quebec Region
Atlantic Seal - 2011-2015
Management Plans
Atlantic Pelagic Shark - 2002-2007
Atlantic Mackerel - Effective 2007
Bluefin Tuna - Effective 2007
Bluefin Tuna - Effective 2008
Atlantic Swordfish and Other Tunas - 2004-2006
No groundfish
(cod, haddock,
pollock, hakes,
A few small
pelagics (herring)
No elasmobranchs (skates
and sharks)
Majority of
species/stocks do
not have IFMPs
• Scotia-Fundy
Herring Integrated
Management Plan
(IFMP) for the
4VWX herring
~ 2400 commercial herring licences
~ 1790 vessel based (40 purse seine, 1710 gillnet,
42 bar seine)
~ 280 fixed gear licences (260 weirs, 20 trap nets)
~ 220 recreational and 100 transport licences
• The main principle stated in the plan is
“the conservation of the herring resource
and the preservation of all of its spawning
• Complex stock structure
Many discrete sub-stocks reside within the management unit
In the past, spatial structure ignored and eroded
under a TAC considered appropriate for the whole
Re-building of stock structure considered essential to recovery
Solution ---
Survey, assess, then fish protocol1
• In-season management
– Monitoring of appearance on spawning
– Surveying of biomass of individual
components (by industry)
– Management & decision-making to spread
fishing effort among spawning components
• Harvesting no more than 20% of the estimated
component biomass
Stephenson, R. L., Rodman, K., Aldous, D. G., and Lane, D. E. 1999. An in-season
approach to management under uncertainty: the case of the SW Nova Scotia herring
fishery. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 56: 1005–1013.
Three conservation objectives appear in the plan:
1) To maintain the reproductive capacity of
herring in each management unit through:
- persistence of all spawning components in the
management unit;
- maintenance of biomass of each spawning
component above a minimum threshold;
- maintenance of a broad age composition for each
spawning component; and
- maintenance of a long spawning period for each
spawning component.
2) To prevent growth overfishing:
- continue to strive for fishing mortality rate
no higher than natural mortality
3) To maintain ecosystem integrity/
ecological relationships (“ecosystem
- maintain spatial and temporal diversity of
- maintain herring biomass at moderate to
high levels
Performance/evaluation of
herring conservation objectives
2000 - 2010
Recovery slower than
Too little too late?
DFO Research Document 2012/025
Number of licences = ~3000
with ~ 1600 in LFA 33 & 34
Fishery is governed by a suite of legislation, policy
and regulations including but not limited to those
noted below.
Conservation strategies and tactics
• Keep lobster fishing mortality moderate
Limited entry
Trap limits
Minimum legal sizes
Window in some LFAs (i.e. release of mid-sized
– Seasons (i.e. closures during
spawning/molting/extrusion periods)
– Studies on improving gear efficiency and selectivity
• Keep fishing mortality moderate for by-catch
– Gear fitted with escape vents and biodegradable
• Allow sufficient escapement from exploitation for
– Release of berried female lobsters
– V-notching of berried female lobsters
– Release of female Jonah and rock crab
• Control unintended incidental mortality of North
Atlantic right whales
– Voluntary standards of practice developed with World
Wildlife Federation (e.g., avoidance protocols, gear
setting techniques)
– Outreach and information provided to harvesters
• Manage area of disturbed bottom habitat
– Coral closures
– Marine Protected Areas
– Gear handling (weighted traps, proper hauling)
• Limit introduction of pollutants
– Periodic reminders at meetings of proper disposal of
waste material
– Minimize introduction of debris
Social, Cultural and Economic Objectives also exist
Lobster Landings and Value
Over last two decades: Lobster accounted for ~ one-third of commercial fishery
value in Maritimes Region to ~ 55 percent in 2008
In 2008, Maritimes Region Lobster accounted for 20 percent of the value of the
entire Canadian commercial fishery
• Suggests this fishery is working very well
• However, compliance issues exist
• For example:
– setting of illegal and unmarked traps in closed
areas and seasons
– retention of undersized or egg-bearing
lobsters continue unabated and increasing
Conservation vs. Exploitation
VIOLATIONS BY LFA -- 2000 to 2008
How can we stop fighting?
Getting to know you
Getting to know all
about you.
Getting to like you,
Getting to hope you
like me
Getting to know you,
Getting to feel free
and easy
When I am with you,
Getting to know
what to say
• Many small steps towards EAM
• Cooperation and compliance pose
• Partnerships growing
• NGOs/Consumers/Universities can speed
up the rate of EAM implementation
» The end
• The Network focuses on issues relevant to
industry, and aimed at increasing knowledge
that will enhance the ecological sustainability,
socio-economic viability and management of
Canadian fisheries
• Network objectives:
– To overcome information gaps for important
commercial fisheries and improve the use of industry
information in assessment and management;
– To enhance ecological sustainability while achieving
operational efficiency
– To improve the basis for the ecosystem approach to
fisheries management.
• The implementation of EAM involves:
– appreciation of suite of human activities contributing
to pressures on marine ecosystem
– designation of management units over which
pressures can be measured and regulated
– establishment of reference points to guide decisions
– incorporation of strategies into management plans to
regulate key pressures
– performance evaluations to determine if tactics are
effective and if strategies are suitable
– evolution of the governance institutions to address
the hierarchical structure of EAM management
Social, Cultural and Economic Objectives
• Facilitate Aboriginal participation in fisheries and
associated economic opportunities, and in the
management of aquatic resources
• Offer flexibility in policy and licensing
– Maintain the allowance for the formation of partnerships and
stacking of licences so fleets may rationalize capacity during
periods of changing price or abundance
• Promote stability in access to resources and allocations
– Limit entry to fishery through licensing policy so that licence
holders may develop long-term business plans
• Support certification for sustainability
– Collect data on discards of some crab species
– End of season submission of Species at Risk reporting document
• IFMPs must respond to three things:
1. A requirement to incorporate the Resource
Management Sustainable Fisheries Framework
(SFF), in particular the precautionary approach and
ecosystem factors and impacts in fishery decisionmaking
2. Demands of Canadians seeking more stability,
fairness and transparency from fisheries
management systems
3. The need to put in place a rules-based approach to
decision-making, which is more transparent,
rigorous and systematic
SFF Policies
• Precautionary Approach
– Applies to target stocks where decisions have to be made on harvest strategies or
harvest rates
– Includes reference points linked to stock and ecosystem indicators
• Forage Species
– Applies primarily to new fisheries on forage species
– Maintain species (affected directly or indirectly) and ecological relationships within
bounds of natural fluctuations
• Sensitive Benthic Areas
– Mitigate or avoid impacts from fishing that are likely to cause serious or irreversible
harm to sensitive marine habitat, communities and species
– Decision to prioritize cold-water corals, sponge dominated communities, and
• Bycatch
– Support sustainable harvesting and minimize risks of serious or irreversible harm to
bycatch species
– Account for total catch, including retained and non-retained bycatch
EAM Framework
Step 1: Identify Relevant Activities
Step 2: Prioritize Key Pressures
Step 3: Define Management Units and Attributes
Step 4: Determine Ways to Measure/Monitor Key
Pressures (Reference Points)
Step 5: Determine Ways to Measure/Monitor Key
Attributes (Reference Points)
Step 6: Identify Appropriate Tactics to Implement
Step 7: Incorporate strategies into management plans.
Step 8: Conduct performance evaluations.
Step 9: Monitor attributes (and pressures).
Step 10: Review overall process and management
framework, including building stakeholder capacity, etc.