RLO Pest Management in TPS Nursery

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Transcript RLO Pest Management in TPS Nursery

Introduction
• Compatibility of IPM practices with other nursery management
practices
and
prevailing
ecological
and
socioeconomic
conditions are necessary for its effective adoption.
• Main goal of the IPM is to reduce crop losses caused by pests
with minimum financial investment and environmental losses.
• Potato tuber moths, aphids, thrips, leaf hoppers, flea beetles,
cutworms, mites, leaf miners, whiteflies are some of the pests
found in True potato seed nursery.
Aphid (Myzus persicae)
Symptoms
• Aphid colonies visible on the underside of leaves.
• Leaves look faded and shriveled due to loss of cell sap.
Identification
• Aphids are small (1-2 mm), soft and usually green in colour.
• Aphids suck the sap and weaken the plant;
• Aphids secrets sugary substance which favor black fungal
growth on leaves.
• Aphids act vectors and transmit plant viral diseases to other
plants.
Aphid (Myzus persicae)
Winged Green colored Aphids on leaf
Wingless Green colored Aphid colony
Aphid (Myzus persicae)
Control
• Naturally occurring insect predators such as beetles and wasp
feed on aphids. Fungi such as Entomophthora species controls
Aphids population.
• Spraying at the rate of 30 ml of Metasystox (Methyl demeton)
25 EC or 20 ml of Rogar (Dimethoate) 30 EC or 7.5 ml of
Dimecron (phosphamidon) 85 SL in 10 liters of water can
control aphid population.
Thrips (Frankliniella species.)
Symptoms
• Thrips infestation causes silver spots on the leaves. Leaves
dry up, plant weakens and yields drop down significantly.
• Pale to brown color nymphs and dark colored adults of thrips
are observed on the underside of leaves.
Identification
• Thrips are thin, minute insects (1-2 mm long) that feed on
cells on underside of leaves.
• Severe thrips attacks may cause wilting of plants. Thrips also
transmit Tomato Spindle Wilt Virus (TSWV).
Thrips (Frankliniella species)
Control
• Adequate quantity of irrigation
can be an effective control
method.
• Spray the crop plants with of
0.02%Phosphamidon or 0.03%
Dimethoate or Methyl Demeton
orThiometon to controls the
pest effectively.
Pale or brown colored nymphs of Thrips
Leaf hoppers (Empoasca species.)
Identification
• Leafhoppers are small in size (3mm long), highly mobile,
mostly found underside of the leaves and widely distributed in
croplands.
Symptoms:
• Leaf hoppers feed on plant cell sap and weaken the plant.
Leaf hoppers introduce toxins in the plant tissues and damage
the plant.
• Leafhoppers burn leaf edges with top leaf roll and foliar
yellowing and plants may die prematurely.
• Some species of leaf hopper transmit mycoplasma like
diseases such as Aster Yellows and Witches Broom disease.
Leafhoppers (Empoasca species.)
Control
• Use leaf hopper resistant or
tolerant varieties and trap crops
like beans.
• Spray insecticides @ 30 ml Rogor
(Dimethoate)
or
Metasystox
(Methyl Demeton) or 7.5 ml of
Dimecron (Phosphomidon) in 10
liters of water and If necessary
repeat the spray after 10 days.
Potato Leaf hopper
Cutworms (Agrotis species)
Identification
• Cutworms are robust and grayish colored larvae 5 cm in
length.
• Cutworm larvae remain buried at the base of the plant during
daytime and feed on stem and root during night time.
• Prominent spots and line are seen on the back of cutworm
larvae.
Nature of Damage
• Cutworm larvae cut the stems of young plants causing lodging
of seedlings. Some cutworm species feed on the leaves.
Cutworms (Agrotis species)
Control.
• Toxic baits prepared by mixing
insecticide with cereal bran,
molasses and water should be
placed at the base of plants.
• Use Carbaryl poison baits 5% @ 10
to 15kg / acre
• Soil application of chlordane or
Heptachlor dust @ 50kg / ha found
very effective against the cutworm
pest.
Cutworms on Potato Plant
Flea Beetles (Epitrix species)
Identification
• Flea beetles are small in size, 2-3 mm long, black in color,
jump easily in the foliage of plants.
• The white colored thin larvae have short legs on the thorax
measure up to 4 mm in length.
Nature of Damage
• Flea beetle bore less than 3 mm in diameter circular holes on
the leaves. Severe damage cause drying up of leaves, badly
affecting photosynthesis, plant growth and crop yield.
Flea Beetles (Epitrix spp.)
Control
• Spraying of Bacillus thuriengensis
as a bio-control agent formulation is
very effective.
• Soil application of Neem, Mahua,
groundnut cakes are effective in
suppressing the pest population.
• Spraying of Malathion 50 EC @ 20
Flea Beetles on Potato Leaf
ml in 10 liters of water provides
effective control.
Mites (Tetranychus species)
Identification
• Mites are generally known as red spiders but are not always in
red color. Mites are extremely small, almost microscopic in size.
Nature of Damage
• Mites feed on the cellular matter of leaves leading to chlorotic
spots on leaves and tan coloring. High infestation mites cause
wilting of leaf and plant.
• White mite, attacks young sprouts and tender leaves, deforming
them. Damage to growing plants is particularly severe.
Control
• Use of acaricides, dry climatic conditions and less irrigation
destroy and mange the mite infestation.
Leaf miner (Liriomyza huidobrensis)
Identification
• Small larvae of Leaf miners are up to 2.5 mm long and do not
have heads or legs. Larvae pupate on underside of the leaves
and then fall to ground.
Nature of Damage
• Leaf miners are a serious pest of potato. Larvae bore tunnels
inside the leaves, leaves dry up and eventually lead to plant
death.
Control
• Keep Sanitation in nursery and burn affected plants. Spray @
Nuvan 1 ml/lit or Acephate 1.5 g/lit or Cypermethrin 0.5 ml/lit.
White fly (Bemisia tabaci)
Identification
• White fly adults are small insects with light yellow powdery bodies,
1.0 to1.5 mm long, pure white wings and prominent long legs.
Eggs are smooth, sub elliptical, light yellow, when freshly laid, turn
dark brown later.
Nature and symptoms of damage
• Nymphs suck sap from the leaves where sooty mould develops
and growth of plants is stunted.
Control measures
• Spray @ 30 ml of Rogor 30 EC (Dimethoate) or Metasystox 25 EC
(Methyl-Demeton) or 7.5 ml of Dimecran 85 SL ( Phosphamidon) in
10 liters of water.
Leaf miner (Liriomyza huidobrensis)
Leaf miner Infestation
White fly Infestation