Transcript species

Sustaining Wild Species
G. Tyler Miller’s
Living in the Environment
13th Edition
Chapter 22
Dr. Richard Clements
Chattanooga State Technical Community College
Key Concepts
Human effects on biodiversity
Importance of biodiversity
How human activities affect wildlife
Management of wildlife
Human Impacts on Biodiversity
Fig. 22-2 p. 561
Increasing Biodiversity
Physically diverse habitat :List 5 reasons why this
increases biodiversity -
Moderate environmental disturbance :
What are some examples of this? How can this increase biodiversity?
Small variations in conditions: What kind of
conditions? How does this relate to tolerance and threshold limits?
Middle stages of ecological succession:
What occurs in middle stage succession? What are soil and habitat (space) conditions?
Decreasing Biodiversity
Environmental stress :What does this mean?
Large environmental disturbance :give some
Specific examples where this has occurred.
Extreme environmental conditions: Are
Some biomes more susceptible to this? If so, which ones? Can humans influence this?
Severe limiting factors: Passenger Pigeon’s low
Reproductive rate, what are other examples?
Introduction of alien species: Give two examples
And their impact
Geographic isolation: List one natural and one human cause
Human Activities
Find and Record 5 different pieces
of data to support human impact
(*pg 561)
US Species Diversity
Fig. 22-3 p. 562
Current Data
Strategies for
Species approach :
Can you predict any problems associated
with this?
approach :what are
some flaws with this plan?
Fig. 22-5 p. 563
Species Extinction
Local extinction: gone from certain patches, but not everywhere
Ecological extinction: ex: too few teammates, therefore the
game is forfeited
Biological extinction: completely gone from all of earth
Endangered and Threatened Species
Endangered species: in rapid decline, could soon become
extinct without protection
Threatened (vulnerable) species: in decline,
but still with relative abundance
Rare species: naturally exists in few locations
and small
Fig. 22-7 p. 564
population numbers
Northern spotted
owl (threatened)
Gray wolf
Florida panther
© 2004 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning
turaco (Africa)
Extinction Risks
Factors: population size, habitat, and
genetics –ex: Tasmanian devils , hereditary cancer
Population viability analysis: risk assessment using
math and statistical models to predict probability a pop. will persist
Minimum viable population: smallest number
Needed to ensure pop. survival
Minimum dynamic area: min. suitable habitat to
Maintain min. viable pop.
Characteristics of extinction-prone
species: (refer to Fig. 22-8 p. 566)
Extinction Rates
Background (natural) rate of extinction
Why Should We Care About
Instrumental value:
How will we be affected without these?
Intrinsic value
How can this be measured?
See Spotlight p. 571
Fig. 22-10p. 569
Causes of Depletion of Wild Species
Human population growth
Failure to value the environment or
ecological services
Increasing per capita resource use
Increasing use of Earth’s primary
Causes of Premature Extinction of
Wild Species
of non-native
Fig. 22-12
p. 572
Threats from Nonnative Species
Roles of nonnative species
(p. 576)
See Connections
p. 577 and
Case Study p. 579
Fig. 22-19 p. 579
Other Extinction Threats
Hunting and Poaching
Predators and Pest Control
Exotic Pets and Decorative Plants
Climate Change and Pollution
Protecting Wild Species: The
Research and Legal Approaches
 Bioinformatics
 International Treaties: CITES
 National Laws: Lacey Act
Endangered Species Act
 Habitat conservation plans
Protecting Wild Species: The
Sanctuary Approach
 Wildlife refuges and protected areas
 Gene banks, botanical gardens, and farms
 Zoos and Aquariums
Wildlife Management
Laws regulating hunting and fishing
Harvest quotas
Population management plants
Improving habitat
Treaties and laws for migrating species