The Americas

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Transcript The Americas

The Americas
I. The First Peoples
A. Geography
1. The Americas stretch from Arctic Ocean to
Cape Horn at the tip of South America
2. There are two major mountain ranges the
Andes and the Rocky Mountains
3. There are two main rivers the Mississippi and
the Amazon
B. On the Move
1. During the last Ice Age a land bridge was
formed between Asian and North America in the
Bering Strait
a. Hunters and gatherers crossed the bridge in
pursuit of food
b. These peoples populated North and South
America and were nomadic
C. Agricultural Revolution
1. Between 5,000 and 10,000 years ago a
change took place in present day central Mexico
a. People began to plant crops and drifted away
from hunting and gathering
Why would this happen? What would be the
b. Because people began to stay in one place
huge cities and civilizations developed
D. Peoples of North America
1. Inuit
a. In 3000 BC the Inuit moved into North
i. Their houses were made of stone and turf
ii. Igloos were temporary shelters for traveling
2. Mound People
a. In 1000 BC the areas from the Great Lakes to
the Gulf of Mexico were settled
– There were several societies of mound people
• The Adena
• The Mississippian
Hopewell were the best known
• Also known as “mound people”
– Mounds were used for tombs or for ceremonies
Serpent Mound
3. Changes
a. In 700 AD there was a shift to full
time farming
i. This created prosperous cultures along the
Mississippi River Valley
• Corn, squash, and beans were grown together- three
sister farming
b. Cities began to appear
i. Cahokia was the government seat for most of
the Mississippi culture- found near St. Louis today
–had a burial mound larger than the Great pyramid
–ended in the 1300s
4. Iroquois
a. The Iroquois settled Northeast of the
Mississippi culture
i. They lived in longhouses
ii. Women owned the longhouses
iii. War and blood feuds were common
iv. Became very prosperous due to Hiawatha
Long House
War Club
4. People of North America- Iroquois
iii. Organized into clans or related families
iv. Clan mothers chose the Grand Council members
a. Grand Council settles matters between the
b. Great Peace
i. Created a Iroquois League made up of 5 major
4. People of North America- Iroquois
c. Laws
a. Do not act on self interest, act for the whole,
and act with future generations in mind
• There were five tribes in the original Iroquois
Confederacy: the Mohawk, Seneca, Oneida,
Onondaga, and Cayuga tribes. Later a sixth
nation, the Tuscarora tribe, joined the
e. Plains
i. Plains Indians settled west of the Mississippi
– They lived in tepees
– Hunted buffalo
– Shoshone, Blackfoot, Nez Pierce, Sioux,
6. Anasazi
a. Anasazi settled in the Southwest
i. They had an extensive farming
ii. They used canals and dams to farm
the desert
iii. They were known for their pottery
People of North America- Anasazi
v. They used stone and adobe to build
their houses
–They lived in Pueblos
• These could house over a thousand
–Mesa Verde in Colorado
–Chaco Canyon in New Mexico
7. Southern Peoples
a. The Creek, Cherokee, and Choctaw
tribes had some of the largest
populations on the continent and
built elaborate civilizations.
Why would some nations be able to
sustain larger populations than
Geography’s Effect on Native
What effects do you believe geography would
have had on Native Americans?
E. Trade
1. Because Native cultures were diverse,
they began to trade their items with each
a. Trade extended from coast to coast
E. Peoples of Latin and South
Large and sophisticated civilizations
1. The Incas were found in modern day
2. The Mayans were found in Central
3. The Aztecs were in present day Mexico
4. Each of these societies were agriculturally
based with corn being central to their
5. These societies had millions of people
within them
6. They built huge and elaborate cities, had
mathematicians, complex religions, and
Tenochtitlán- Aztecs
II. Pre-Columbian World Societies
A. Native American Society
1. Native American society was structured very
differently from today the U.S. today
a. They didn’t believe land could be sold
b. They had extended family relationships
c. They believed the natural world was filled
with spirits
i. These included living and non-living
Native American Society
2. Societies varied widely on ownership
a. In many societies became matriarchal
b. Some tribes such as the Kwakiuti had
3. Many groups would stay together a
short while, separate, and then reunite
a. Sioux
B. African Societies
1. In the late 1400s Western Africa had three
main kingdoms
a. The Songhai- they were traders
b. The Benin- metal, art, trade
c. The Kongo
Were ruled by a man or woman
Collected taxes
Had a king
They weapons , tools, and fabric
African Society
2. Alliances through family were very important
3. Religion was a part of all aspects of life
a. They believed the world both living and
non-living was full of spirits
b. Ancestor spirits would be known to talk to
elders in dreams
c. They believed in a single creator
African Society
4. Most people lived in villages
a. They were farmers, crafters, hunters, miners, or
5. Labor or work was divided by social status
a. Most tribes did have slaves but they could escape
slavery by many different ways such as marrying
African Societies
6. West Africa had long had trade associations
with the Middle East through trade
a. In the 1400s Europeans began to have
an influence on West Africans
West Africa
7. The Portuguese were the first to have contact
with West Africans
a. By 1470 they had established trade posts after
making technical advances in shipping- the
b. In the 1480s the Portuguese began to plant
sugar cane on islands off the African coast
c. To work these fields they bought slaves from
local African chiefs
C. European Society in 1492
1. Society in Europe was ranked according to
social status
2. The extended family was not as important as
the nuclear family
3. Christianity was the primary religion
European Society in 1492
4. Trading and business boomed in the late
5. Nations became very powerful
6. A need to find new land and resources,
especially gold and sugar came to Europe
III.Expansion and Colonialism
Mine Mine Mine -
“God, Glory, and Gold”
A. Motives for exploration1. Trade- spices to preserve and flavor food
2. Religious- to spread their faith
3. Glory- the thought and spirit of adventure
“God, Glory, and Gold”
B. Glory
1. Adventure
a. Marco polo’s book The Travels fascinated many
about the East
b. Portuguese lead the way in exploration
1. They took over the spice trade from the Muslims
2. They were trade based
c. Spanish sailed Westd. Christopher Columbus landed in the Bahamas in
Why America?
e. Amerigo Vespucci- wrote many letters on the
lands he saw
– These led to the name America
C. Colonialism
1. The Treaty of Tordesillas
a. Split the areas Spain and Portugal could
–Spain-west of line (Americas)
–Portugal- east of line (mainly Africa
and portions of eastern S. America)
2. Dutch created the West India Company to
compete with Spain and Portugal for trade
3. Mercantilism- Economic thought in the
seventeenth century, it held that the prosperity
of a nation depended on a large supply of gold
and silver.
Many of the foods that we eat and think of as
American are native to other continents.
European and
American Foods
Asian Foods
• Cornflakes
• Cheerios
• Oatmeal
• Wheaties
• Milk
• Ham
• Sugar
• Bacon
• Bananas
• Chicken Eggs •Rice Crispies
What was the Columbian Exchange?
During the years of exploration and
the settling of the New World by
Europeans, many items from the
different lands were traded between
What was the Columbian Exchange?
The Spanish brought horses to the
America’s to conquer and explore the
The English brought home corn,
tomatoes, and potatoes for new crops.
In Europe and Asia livestock were
common place by the time of
Columbus. These animals had
been domesticated and used for
the benefit of their human
In the America’s there was not
much livestock to be found. There
were no beasts of burden, such as
cattle, to help with the work.
European Livestock
• Cattle
• Pigs
• Sheep
• Dogs
• Horses
• Donkeys
• Barnyard Fowl
American Livestock
• Turkeys
• Llamas
• Alpacas
• Guinea Pigs
Many of the foods and or dishes
that are associated with a country
today, where in fact part of the
Columbian exchange. These foods
actually originated in other lands.
Can you think of any examples?
•Italy and Pasta
•Ireland and potatoes
European, Asian, and African Foods
From Europe:
• Barley
• Oat
• Turnips
• Cabbage
• Lettuce
• Peaches
• Pears
• Olives
From Asia and Africa:
• Onion
• Citrus Fruits such as melons
• Bananas
• Coffee Beans
• Grapes
• Rice
• Sugar Cane
American Foods
• Pumpkins
• Squash
• Pineapples
• Cacoa Beans
• Sweet potato
• Peanuts
• Papayas
• Guavas
• Kidney and Lima
Many species of
non-food plants
also crossed over
the oceans and
settled in foreign
soil. Sometimes
through purposeful
means such as
flowers, and
sometimes not in
the form of weeds.
European Plants
• Daisies
• Kentucky Bluegrass
Diseases were an important cultural exchange
between the continents of the Old and New
World. Their impact was far reaching.
The New World did have a few native diseases,
but nothing on the scale of the Old World. There
were many factors that led to this. These were
due to the large cities that were found in the Old
World, the living arrangements with animals, and
larger populations.
European Diseases
•Small Pox
•Influenza (Flu)
• Malaria
• Measles
• Typhus
• Yellow Fever
• Common Cold
• Chicken Pox
• Cholera
American Diseases
• Chargas
• Treponematoses
Animals, plants, and disease
were not the only things that
crossed with the ships. The
people’s ideas crossed also. This
often led to conflict as each of
the peoples tried to make the
other think they did.
Many of the countries,
especially Spain
wanted to convert the
native people to their
religion. They set up
missions and sent
priests over to the
New World to do this.
During this time the African Slave
Trade began. African slaves were
taken from their homes and taken to
the far off new world to work.
What effects did this trade
have on both societies?
• Slavery and the New
• Economy
• New food sources
• Trade Routes
• New Land
•Changing Ideas
There were many items, ideas, and
people traded during the colonization and
exploration of the New World. Some of
these things were good for everyone, foods,
and some were not, disease and slavery.
When Columbus and other explorers
came to the Americas they brought not only
themselves, but ideas, foods, disease, plants,
and livestock.
When they left they took all of these
home with them and steps were being made
to make the world a smaller place.
What three exchanged
items do you believe
had the greatest effect
on the world and why?
E. Effects of Colonialism
• Colonies became very important in the new
• The new European colonies forced Native
Americans to work for them
• Some natives fought back but resistance
didn’t last for long
Effect on Native Americans
1. Europeans brought something more deadly
than weapons with them
– Disease
a. European diseases would kill over 90% of
Native American populations in most areas
i. Some tribes were completely lost
2. Slave Trade
2. Slave Tradea. The need for workers in the sugar cane
fields led to the need for slaves
i. 1518 first Spanish ship with slaves
headed for the Americas
2. Slave Trade
b. Triangle Trade
i. Linked Europe, Africa, and
ii. 10 million slaves were brought
to the Americas between the
sixteenth and nineteenth
Triangle Trade
Cotton, sugar,
Manufactured goods
(guns, cloth)
Effect on Africa
The effect- The slave traders took the strongest
and young men, leaving Africa with few young
Spanish in the New World
• After Columbus’s voyages many more
Spaniards came to the new world
hoping for gold and silver
–They were known as conquistadors or
Spanish in the New World
• One of these conquistadors was Hernando
• With his army he marched to the capital of
the Aztecs under Montezuma's rule in
central Mexico
–The capital city was filled with gold and
wonderful inventions such as a system
to bring fresh water into the city
Spanish in the New World
• In 1519 Hernando Cortez led an army
into southeastern Mexico to claim
control over the Aztecs and their gold
• The Aztecs surrendered in 1521
–Cortez planned the colony of New
Spain and its capital was called
Mexico City
Famous Conquistadores
• Vasco Balboa- claimed the Pacific Ocean
• Magellan- first group to circumnavigate the
world in 1519- was killed in the Philippines
• Francisco Pizzaro- conquered the Incas
As Central and South America were conquered
huge mines were set up and the resources
sent back to Spain
Spanish in the New World
• Most Spanish settlers in the New Spain
were men (peninsulares)
• These men married native women
–Their children were called mestizos
Spanish in the New World
• The Spanish oppressed the native
population and put them into a system
of slavery and labor known as
– This system was made to support conversion of
natives, but it really helped with mining and sugar
–This harsh system angered many and
attempts were made to end it through
the Laws of Burgos
Spanish in the New World
• The Spanish oppressed the native
population and put them into a system
of slavery and labor known as
–This harsh system angered many and
attempts were made to end it through
the Laws of Burgos
–The Spanish would turn to another
method of labor
• Slavery of African Americans
Spanish in the New World
• Juan Ponce de Leon
discovered the beaches
of Florida in 1513.
–His search was for
gold and maybe the
“fountain of youth”
• Hernando de Soto went on
a gold-seeking expedition
in Florida from 1539-1542
• He discovered the
Mississippi but was killed
by natives after severely
mistreating them
Spain in the New World
• In 1540 another conquistador went in search
of treasure- the legendary cities of gold
• Francisco de Coronado led the first Spanish
expedition into the Southwest
• When he left after two years the only
precious metal he left with was his own
• He did discover bison and the Grand Canyon
Spain in the New World
• After Coronado the remaining Spaniards
to come searched for silver ore or were
Catholic priests.
• They would set up areas such as Santa
Fe and San Diego
Spanish in the New World
• In 1562 after several
problems the Spanish
abandoned the further
exploration of Florida
• The Spanish would
attempt to settle parts
of Texas, California,
New Mexico, and
Spain in the New World
• The priests treated the natives often very
badly including whipping them.
• One of these men was Pope’ a Pueblo
religious leader.
–In 1680 Pope’ led a revolt
–He and his followers were able to push
back the priests and had control of the
area for 14 years it took over 50 years
for the Spanish to reclaim New Mexico
The French Land
• After Spain abandoned Florida the French
• The French also brought pirates or
buccaneers with them who were after the
gold and treasure laden ships of Spain
• Robert de La Salle made an expedition
down the Mississppi
• This led the Spanish to take back Florida
and attempt to drive out the French
The French in North America
• The French would settle areas along the
Mississippi most notably present day Louisiana
and the port city of New Orleans
• French traders and mountain men would
explore the areas of Canada, Quebec, and the
parts of the West.
• The French would be some of the very first
white men to speak and see Plains native
tribes- this would later lead to many tribes with
the ability to speak French
Does the Black Legend have merit or not?