Period 4 AP World Historyx - Public Schools of Robeson County

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Transcript Period 4 AP World Historyx - Public Schools of Robeson County

Unit 4: 1450-1750
Age of Exploration: The Hemispheres Unite!
History in Review
Period 1- 8000-600 BCE: Foundations of history
Humans move out of Africa, start forming societies
Period 2- 600 BCE-600 CE: Classical history
Major world religions founded
Development of world empires
Beginning of interregional trade
Period 3: 600-1450 CE: Post-classical history
Collapse of Period 2 Empires and emergence of new
powers (Muslims & Mongols)
Expansion of trade networks & migrations
Big Picture- Period 4
Transatlantic connections
First time we can talk about “world” history
VAST expansion of interregional exchange
New labor systems
Maritime and land-based (“gunpowder”) empires
Key Concept 4.1.I
Globalizing networks of communication & exchange
Existing networks of trade intensify while new
networks of exchange emerge
Remember these, they’re still important!:
Indian Ocean
Mediterranean Ocean
Eurasian land routes
Factors that led to European
expansion (4.1.II)
Advances in technology
New tools from Asia (astrolabe, magnetic compass, better
New ship designs (caravel)
Need to expand trade routes
Fall of Constantinople to Ottomans in 1453 = bad news for
Christian traders wanting to go through the region
Religious motivations
Protestant Reformation in 1517
Catholic rulers want to expand Catholicism to a new
Important maritime exploration happens in Period 4
Oceania: Europeans reach Oceania (James Cook), but
infrequent visits make this the least changed part of the
China: Zheng He - last great Chinese explorer (1371-1433)
Could have been 1st to discover Americas
Ming Dynasty pulls inward, rejects exploration
Europe: big man on campus (re: exploration)
Goes to Africa, Asia, Americas
Beginning of European colonization
Why Portugal and Spain First?
- Located near
- Need to get
around Italian
grip on
- Go west and
Portugal Goes South
1418: Prince Henry the Navigator starts a school to teach
navigators to sail down west coast of Africa
1488: Bartolomeo Dias sails around Cape of Good Hope
1494- Treaty of Tordesillas limits Portugal’s influence in
South America to (what is now) Brazil and east, encouraging
Portugal to seek influence elsewhere (Africa and Asia)
1498: Vasco de Gama reaches India by ocean (1st European)
1500- Pedro Cabral settles Brazil
Kongo, Angola, and Swahili City States all fall to Portuguese
rule, directly or indirectly
Spain Goes West
Christopher Columbus really wants to find glory at sea
Thinks he can sail west to reach Asia (India)
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella say “eh, why not?”
October 12, 1492: Lands somewhere in Caribbean
Discovers gold on island of Hispaniola- ensures Spaniards
will be back
1521: Hernan Cortes- conquers Aztecs
1532: Francisco Pizarro- conquers Incas
Both men used gunpowder, horses, disease and disgruntled
locals to overthrow massive empires
Western Europe
Mid-Atlantic colonies, Caribbean islands (Dutch Antilles, Aruba, etc)
Exploration begins in 1534 with Jacques Cartier
Settles Canada, midwestern N.A, Louisiana, Florida (for a hot minute),
Haiti (Saint-Domingue)
Export luxury goods- furs, sugar, etc
Friendly relations with Native Americans
Colonies first attempted in 1586/1587 (Roanoke)
Settles Canada (wins French Canada in 7 Years War), eastern N.A., West
Indies, parts of Central/South America
Hostile relations with Native Americans
KC 4.1.IV- American Wealth, European
Companies, Asian Goods
Everyone wants in on the Asian game
Europeans trade American gold & silver for Asian goods
Transport goods from Asian city to other Asian cities or back to
Joint-stock companies formed,
British East India Company – 1600
Dutch East India Company – 1602
French East India Company- 1664
**Mercantilism**- main economic system in Period 4
You want a positive flow of wealth into your country
Zero-sum game with other countries (if you have more money,
that means I have less)
KC 4.1.IV Cont’d
Key Concept K.1.V- The
Columbian Exchange
KC 4.1. VI- Spread and Blend
of Religions
Islam spreads to new settings in Afroeurasia
Sunni/Shia split intensifies
Sufism spreads
Christianity spread through Asia and Americas
Buddhism spreads through Asia
Dalai Lama lineage begins in 15th century
Syncretic religions:
Vodun (vodou) in Caribbean
Cult of saints in Latin America
Sikhism (Hinduism + Islam)
KC 4.2.VII- Innovations in Art
Italian merchants who were rich off trade could afford to pay
artists to make art
Art was this era’s status symbol; art by da Vinci,
Michelangelo, etc was that era’s version of a Prada bag or
Commissioning religious art was also an acceptable way for
rich Catholics to spend their money
Renaissance is born
Innovations in art (1-point linear perspective, depth, use of oil
as a painting medium, studies in anatomy, engineering, etc)
Innovations in literature
Key Concept 4.2
New forms of social organization and modes of
Social organization
Family size and composition
Social classes change
New races of people creates
Modes of production
Expanded trade & Columbian exchange = big changes
KC 4.2.I- Changes in Labor
Peasant labor intensifies
Indian production of cotton goods
East India Company sold Indian cotton to Britain
1664- 250,000 pieces of cotton from India to Britain
African Slavery
Slaves captured in battle, used in homes or sold to
Mediterranean/Indian Oceans
KC 4.2.I Continued
Plantation Economies
Chattel slavery (VERY different from African slavery)
Africans imported to American colonies, used as labor on
plantations to grow cash crops (tobacco, sugar, etc)
Colonial Coerced Labor
Indentured servitude- In theory, seven-year long internship
Encomienda (you work as my slave, and I “protect” you and
convert you to Christianity)
Hacienda- much like encomienda, but grows as encomienda is
outlawed, and is land-based (una hacienda is an estate)
Mit’a (1/7 of labor goes to Spanish lords, not community
projects that benefit everyone)
KC 4.2.2 Existing and New
Existing Elites have to adapt to new challenges and
increasingly powerful monarchs
Japanese equivalent to European nobility
Enjoyed great freedom until Tokugawa period or Edo
Period (1603-1868)
Tokugawa shogunate reined in daimyo
Laws restricting: dress, behavior, marriage, weaponry, etc
Forced to live in Edo (capital) every other year
Forced to contribute to public works projects
4.2.II New ElitesImperial conquests and new economic opportunities create
new elites
Example: Manchu people
Northeastern China
Mix of Jurchen, Mongolian, and Han Chinese
Manchu (Qing) Dynasty
Conquer Ming Dynasty between 1644 and 1673
Took over government
Ethnic minority takes over Chinese government
Adopted Confucianism and Mandate of Heaven
4.2.II Gender & Family
European men depend on Southeast Asian women for
trade in that region (Malay Peninsula, Indonesia,
Matriarchal societies
Wealth passed from man to woman in marriage
Women were educated, allowed to engage in finance
Trade run by women
Women worked outdoor markets
Engaged in long-distance trade
Wealthiest women controlled mini trade empires
4.2.II- New Ethnic and Racial
Peninsulares- Iberian Spaniards
Creoles- American born descendents of Peninsulares
(new elites)
Mestizos- European/Native American
Mulattoes- European/African
Native Americans
4.3- Expansion of Empires
4.3.I- Rulers used a variety of tactics to legitimize their
Art and architecture
Elizabeth I and James I supported Shakespeare
The construction of Versailles- 1682
Kept all the nobles under the same roof, easier to control
Divine right in Europe- God made me king, so deal with it
Very similar to Mandate of Heaven in China, but divine right
cannot be withdrawn from the ruler if they are incompetent
Hall of
Constructed by King Louis XIV
(14th) to show off the strength,
splendor, and wealth of his court
to foreign dignitaries and to his
own nobles
4.3.I Continued
Treatment of minorities
Ottoman Empire privileged Muslims over non-Muslims
Christians and Jews were tolerated and allowed to live in
their own communities (millets), polytheists were not
Use of bureaucratic and military elites
Ottoman devshirme- Christian boys from the Balkans (8-18
years old) were kidnapped, converted to Islam, and trained
for the elite military corps called the Janissaries
Tributes & tax are collected to keep empires running
4.3.II- The Empires to Know
European Trading Post Empires
Cape Town, South Africa- Dutch
Various port cities/Swahili city states- Portugual
Philippines- Spain
Indonesia- Portugal, then Dutch
India- France and Britain, then Britain
Goa and Malacca- Portugal
4.3.II Continued
Land Empires
Called “Gunpowder Empires”
Manchus (China)
Mughals (India)
Ottomans (Central Asia/Eastern Europe)
Russians (…)
4.3.II Cont’d
Maritime Empires in
the Americas
4.3.III- Competition and
Empires face challenges to their strength and
Competition over trade routes
Many pirates were actually employed by one government to
steal from another government (Francis Drake)
Rivalries between governments
Thirty Years War in Europe (1618-1648)
Local resistance
Samurai revolts- Shimabara Rebellion (1637-1638)