New World Beginnings

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Transcript New World Beginnings

New World
Mr. Long
Chapter 1
The Earliest Americans
• Mexico/South American Native Civilizations
• Agricultural (Corn) accounted for the size and sophistication of
the civilizations
• Developed corn around 5,000 B.C.E
• They are a centralized people (NOT NOMADIC)
• Inca = Peru
• Mayan = Central America
• Aztec = Mexico
The Earliest Americans
• North American Tribes
• Corn did not reach region until 1000 C.E = no
large centralized groups.
• Three-sisters farming: (beans, squash, corn)
beans used corn as trellis while squash covered
mounds to retain moisture = higher populations
due to sustenance.
The Earliest Americans
• North American Tribes
• Iroquois- (Northeast woodlands, NE area)
• Iroquois Confederacy- Chief Hiawatha brought six tribes together to
form closest North American approximation to the great empires of
• Created a robust military alliance which protected people from unwelcome
neighbors (Natives/Europeans)
The Earliest Americans
• North American Tribes
• Plains Indians (Midwest)
• Nomadic buffalo hunters
• Became good on horseback after Spanish brought horses from
• They evolved which allowed them to survive longer than most tribes
The Earliest Americans
• North American Tribes
• Pueblo Indians
Lived on the side of cliffs
Pueblo = village
Very intricate irrigation system allowed them to farm
Contact with Spanish in 16th century
Indirect Discovery of New
Norse explorers from Scandinavia (Vikings)
Landed in Newfoundland about 1000 CE
Purpose: take back the Holy Land from Muslim rule
Cultivated a taste for fine goods (Crusaders)
Brought back desire for wealth to Europe
B/C of expense it led to search for less expensive route to Asia or
another source for goods.
Marco Polo
• 20yr voyage to China (Prob never got there)
• His book intensified European desire for cheaper route
Indirect Discovery of New
World (Cont’d)
New ship design (Caravel). Allowed ships to sail more directly into
Mariners compass was invented
Also found new current in 1450 which allowed sailors to return to
Europe by sailing Northwesterly from Africa. New doors for
Prince Henry the Navigator- created school for explorers =
encouraged by the government
Set up trading posts in Africa (coast) for gold and slaves
Bartholomeu Dias
1488 rounded the southern tip of Africa = New way to Asia
Vasco da Gama
1498 reached India by sailing south around Africa
Fueled desires by returning with small cargo of jewels
Indirect Discovery of New
World (Cont’d)
Spain is unified under Ferdinand and Isabella and the expulsion of
Muslim Moors out of Spain after centuries of warfare
Spain are rivals with Portuguese = competitive spirit
B/C Portugal already controls the African Coast Spain must look for
another route to Asia
Christopher Columbus
• Sailed for Spain in 1492
• Many were scared to sail west into the unknown
• At this time the world was believed to be flat but
that idea is fading.
• Sailed on the Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria
• Landed in Bahamas on October 12, 1492 (six
weeks at sea)
• Almost had to turn around due to mutiny by the
• Columbus is one of the most successful
failures in History!
Driving Forces of Exploration
1. European desire for more/cheaper goods from
Mediterranean and beyond
2. Africa is source for cheap slave labor for agriculture
3. Portuguese proved long-range ocean navigation possible
4. Spain was now a modern nation-state with unity, wealth and
power to handle discovery, conquest and colonization.
5. The dawn of the Renaissance nurtured an ambitious spirit
of optimism and adventure.
6. The Printing Press (1450) facilitated the spread of scientific
7. The Mariners compass was invented which made navigation
easier. New Technology
When Two Worlds Collide
• What Happens When You Take Two Different Things (People,
Places, Customs, ETC) And Mix Them?
• Columbian Exchange- The exchange of two ecosystems both
good and bad between the New World and Old World.
• What can you tell me? What is good and bad about the
sharing of ideas/ways of life from Old World to New World?
When Two Worlds Collide
New World
Perhaps 3/5 of crops
cultivated around world
today originated in the
Old World
• Horses
• Livestock
• Disease (yellow fever,
malaria, etc)
• Caused as much as 90% of
Native peoples to die
within centuries of
Columbus’ landfall.
• Sugar cane
• Led to Sugar Revolution =
more slaves.
When Two World Collide
• The Columbian Exchange creates a new interdependent
global economic system
• Europe provides…
• Markets (consumers)
• Technology
• Finances
• New World provides…
• Raw materials
• Europe saw New World as a source of goods not as
something that could survive on its own.
The Spanish Conquistadores
• Europeans were thirsty for the prizes of the American
• Gold/Silver of advanced Indian civilizations (Mexico/Peru)
• Agricultural Products
• Land
• Treaty of Tordesilias (1494)- Treaty between Spain and
Portugal dividing the “heathen lands” of the New World.
• Spain got the majority of the land (they went west)
• Portugal got lands of Africa, Asia and Brazil
• We begin to see a shift in power from Portugal to Spain in
The Spanish Conquistadores
• Conquistadores- Explorers for Gold, God and Country
Vasco Nunez Balboa- Discovered the Pacific Ocean (1513)
Ferdinand Magellan- 1519-1522 completed the first
circumnavigation of the world.
Juan Ponce de Leon- 1513-1521 landed in Florida in search of
gold (not Fountain of Youth). Killed by Indians
Francisco Coronado- Found the Pueblo Indians. Found Grand
Canyon and Colorado River. Went as far as Kansas
Hernano de Soto- 1539-1542 Took 600 man military force
through Florida and marched west in search of gold. Discovered
the Mississippi River. Very cruel to Indians.
The Spanish Conquistadores
6. Fransisco Pizarro- 1532 He conquered the Incan empire in Peru adding
a huge amount of silver to the Spanish treasury.
By 1600 Spain had so much New World wealth it caused enormous inflation
(500%). May have fed the growth of capitalism
Spain set up its own testing grounds for invading on the islands of the
Caribbean due to increased desire for gold.
Encomienda- This allowed the Spanish government to give Indians to
colonists in return for a promise to Christianize them. Slavery in all but
7. Hernan Cortes- Conquered the Aztec empire in Mexico for Spain.
His attacks along with disease killed the Mexican Population (20million to 2
million in less then a century)
Attacked Capital (Tenochtitlan)
Aztec’s thought he was a god (rode on a horse from west)
Cortez did intermarry (mestizes- people of mixed Indian/European heritage)
8. Don juan de Onate- 1598 Abused Pueblo people along Rio Grande
We see the growing harsh treatment of natives by the Spanish (Trend)
• Black Legend
• Conquerors merely tortured and butchered the Indians, stole
their gold, infected them with smallpox and left little but misery
• The misdeeds of the Spanish in the New World obscured their
substantial achievements.
Spread of the Spanish Empire
• Other European nations began to covet the wealth gained by
Spain (English and French) = COMPETITION
• English:
• Sent Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot)- 1497 and 1498 he explored the
Northeastern coast of North America
• French:
• Sent many explorers to North America in search of wealth
• The Spanish began to build forts to protect against what they
saw as growing threats.