Transcript Sociology

Notable Sociologists
 Auguste Comte
He is seen as the father of Sociology
He coined the term Sociology in reference
to the new science of society
 Sociology
Behavioral science that studies human society and
social behavior.
 Society
Group of mutually interdependent people who have
organized in such a way as to share a common
culture and feeling of unity
 Social interaction
How people relate to one another and influence
each other’s behavior
 Culture
 The beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects
that constitute a peoples' way of life
 Socialization
 Lifelong social experience by which individuals
develop their human potential and learn patterns of
their culture
 Personality
 A person’s fairly consistent patterns of thinking,
feeling, and behaving
 Socialization has a strong influence on one’s
Five Components of Culture
1. Physical objects – Artifacts
Material culture
Automobiles, clothing, books, buildings,
cooking utensils and computers
Non-material culture
Language, ideas, beliefs, rules, skills, family
patterns, work practices, and political and
economic systems
Five Components of Culture
2. Symbols
Anything that stands for something else.
Five Components of Culture
3. Language
The organization of written and spoken
symbols into a standardized system
The way a society expresses ideas and
communicate with each other
Includes non-verbal symbols
4. Values
Shared beliefs about what is good or bad,
right or wrong, desirable or undesirable
Five Components of Culture
5. Norms
Shared rules of conduct that tell people
how to act in specific situations
Folkways – norms that do not have great
moral significance attached to them
Informal ways of doing things
Folkways do not endanger the society
Mores – norms that have great moral
significance attached to them
Violation of mores endangers the society
Laws – written rules of conduct
Factors that Affect Personality
 Is personality learned or are you born with it?
 There are three main factors that affect the
development of our personality
Nature vs. Nurture
Birth order
Parental characteristics – education, religion,
economic status, cultural heritage occupation
The cultural environment – U.S. competitiveness,
assertive, individualism, male vs. female, etc.
Agents of Socialization
 Family
 Most important socializing agent, especially up to
age 5 or 6
 Family based socialization is not all intentional.
(environment is important)
 Research shows attention is very important
 Examples: physical contact, verbal, nonverbal
 School
 Major socializing agent for ages 6-13
 Hidden curriculum – activities that teach students
key cultural values
 Example: achievement, success, moral values
Agents of Socialization
 Peers
 Major socializing agent for ages 13-20
 This is a time of breaking away from direct adult
 Peers develop social relationships on their own
 Develop a sense of identity apart from their
 During this time:
 Peers may guide short-term goals such as dress
and music
 Parents still maintain greater influence over longterm goals such as educational aspirations
Agents of Socialization
 Mass Media
Impersonal communications directed at
large audiences.
 Examples:
TV – average household has a television on
for 7 hours a day.
Books – content analysis
Radio – DJs, talk show hosts