informal communication

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Transcript informal communication

Mata kuliah : A0012 – Manajemen Umum
: 2010
Session 10
Learning Objectives
• After studying Chapter 15, you will know:
the important advantages of two-way communication
communication problems to avoid
when and how to use the various communication channels
ways to become a better “sender” and “receiver of information
how to improve downward, upward, and horizontal communications
how to work with the company grapevine
the advantages and characteristics of the boundaryless organization
Outline Materi
Bina Nusantara
Interpersonal Communication
Improving Communication Skills
Organizational Communication
• Communication
Interpersonal Communication
– the transmission of information and meaning from one party to another through the use of
shared symbols
– sender - initiates the process by conveying information
• has a meaning s/he wishes to communicate
• encodes the meaning into symbols
• transmits the message through some channel
– receiver - person for whom the message is intended
• decodes the messages
• attempts to interpret the sender’s meaning
• may provide feedback by encoding a message in response
– noise- interference in the system that blocks understanding
A Model Of The Communication Process
Person A
Person B
1. Intended meaning
4. Decoding
2. Encoding
5. Perceived meaning
10. Intended meaning
9. Decoding
Communication 6. Intended meaning
7. Encoding
if B sends
feedback to A
Interpersonal Communication (cont.)
• One-way communication
– process in which information flows in only one direction
• no feedback from the receiver
– faster and easier for sender
• Two-way communication
– process in which information flows in two directions
• receiver provides feedback
– basis for constructive exchanges
– more difficult and time consuming
– more accurate
Interpersonal Communication (cont.)
• Communication pitfalls
– errors can occur in all stages of the communication process
– perceptual and filtering processes create misinterpretation
• perception - process of receiving and interpreting information
• filtering - process of withholding, ignoring, or distorting information
• cannot assume the other person means what you think s/he means or
understands the intended meanings
– e.g., problems arise because men and women differ in communication style
Interpersonal Communication (cont.)
• Mixed signals and misperception
– people do not attend to everything going on around them
– people inadvertently send mixed signals
– can avoid these problems by taking the time to:
• ensure that the receiver attends to the message
• consider the receiver’s frame of reference and convey the message from
that perceptual viewpoint
• take concrete steps to minimize perceptual errors and improper signals
• send consistent messages
Interpersonal Communication (cont.)
• Oral channel
– advantages - questions can be asked and answered
• feedback is immediate and direct
• receiver can sense the sender’s sincerity
• more persuasive
– disadvantages
• can lead to spontaneous, ill-considered statements
• there is no permanent record of the communication
Interpersonal Communication (cont.)
• Written channel
– advantages - message can be revised
• provides a permanent record
• message stays the same when sent to several receivers
• receiver has more time to analyze the message
– disadvantages - sender has no control over where, when, or if the message is read
• sender does not receive immediate feedback
• receiver may not understand parts of the message
• message must be longer to answer anticipated questions
Interpersonal Communication (cont.)
• Electronic media
– computers ‘talk’ with others electronically
– teleconferencing - groups of people in different locations interact
• audioconferencing - using telephone lines
• videoconferencing - see one another on television monitors
– advantages - sharing of more information
• speed and efficiency in delivering routine messages
• inexpensive
– disadvantages - difficulty in solving complex problems
• e-mail most appropriate for routine messages
• unsuitable for confidential information
• Virtual office
Interpersonal Communication (cont.)
– a mobile office in which people can work anywhere, as long as they have the tools to
communicate with customers and colleagues
– many benefits in the short run
– questions remain about long-term effect on productivity and morale
– Managing the electronic load - sheer volume of communication can be overwhelming
• reliance on teams promotes increased communication
• must separate important messages from the routine
• discourage people from sending too many e-mail messages
Interpersonal Communication (cont.)
• Communication networks
– volume of communication received depends on position in the decision-making structure
• independent, decentralized decision makers have the lowest
communication needs
• centralized decision makers need and are exposed to greater volumes of
• some decentralized decision makers are so interconnected that they
require even more information than centralized ones
• interorganizational collaborations complicate communication networks
even further
Three Communication Networks
decision makers
decision makers
decision makers
= places where actions are taken and information is generated
= centralized decision maker
Interpersonal Communication (cont.)
• Media richness
– degree to which a communication channel conveys information
– the richest media:
• are more personal than technological
• provide quick feedback
• allow lots of descriptive language
• send different types of cues
• Efficiency and effectiveness
– rely on multiple channels when necessary
– people must know how to use each channel properly
Improving Communication Skills
• Improving sender skills
– Presentation and persuasion skills
• redundancy - state your viewpoint in a variety of ways
• powerful messages are simple and informative
– Writing skills - require clear, logical thinking
• strive for clarity, organization, readability, and brevity
• first draft rarely is as good as it could be
• be critical of your own writing
– Language - word choice can enhance or interfere with communications
• consider the receiver’s background and adjust your language
• learn something about foreign language for overseas business
Improving Communication Skills (cont.)
• Nonverbal skills
signals other than those that are spoken or written
can support or undermine the stated message
nonverbal cues may make a greater impact than other signals
can send a positive message with nonverbal signals by:
• using time wisely
• arranging the office to foster open communication
• body language
• facial expression and tone of voice
• Nonverbal signals in different countries
– need to correctly interpret the nonverbal signals of others
Improving Communication Skills (cont.)
• Improving receiver skills
– Listening - good listening is difficult and not nearly as common as needed
• reflection - process by which a person states what s/he believes the other
person is saying
• listening begins with personal contact
• good listening leads to development of trust
– Reading - reading mistakes are common and costly
• read memos as soon as possible
• note important points for later referral
• read materials outside of your immediate concerns
Improving Communication Skills (cont.)
• Improving receiver skills (cont.)
– Observing
• effective communicators able to observe and interpret nonverbal signals
• personally visiting plants and other locations to get a first-hand view of
• must accurately interpret what is observed
– Effective supervision
communicate more information
prefer asking and persuading to telling and demanding
are sensitive to people’s feelings and needs
are willing, empathic listeners
Organizational Communication
• Downward communication
– information that flows from higher to lower levels in the organization’s hierarchy
– problems:
• information overload
• lack of openness - withhold information even if sharing is important
• filtering - some information is left out
– message can be distorted by adding personal interpretation
– the fewer the number of authority levels through which communication must pass, the less information
will be lost or distorted
Organizational Communication (cont.)
• Downward communication (cont.)
– Coaching - important form of downward communication
• dialogue with a goal of helping another be more effective and achieve
her/his full potential on the job
• used to deal with performance problems or to help person change behavior
• coaches for executives sometimes hired from outside the firm
• often incumbent on managers to coach themselves
– Downward communication in difficult times
• communication important during mergers and acquisitions
• full communication helps employees deal with anxiety
• signals care and concern for employees
Organizational Communication (cont.)
• Downward communication (cont.)
– Open-book management
• practice of sharing with employees at all levels of the organization vital
information previously meant for management’s eyes only
• practice is controversial
• done properly, complete communications system makes sense to people
on the shop floor just as it does to the top executives
• potentially impacts motivation and care for business results
Organizational Communication (cont.)
• Upward communication
– information that flows from lower to higher levels in the organization hierarchy
– important for several reasons
• managers learn what’s going on
• employees gain from the opportunity to communicate upward
• facilitates downward communication
– problems similar to those for downward communication
– Managing upward communication
• managers should facilitate upward communication
• managers must motivate people to provide valid information
• upward communication can use informal channels
Organizational Communication (cont.)
• Horizontal communication
– information sharing among people on the same hierarchical level
– has several important functions
– Managing horizontal communication
direct contact among managers
integrative roles, task forces, and project teams
management information systems
create a culture of openness, honesty, trust, and mutual obligation
Organizational Communication (cont.)
• Formal and informal communication
– formal communication - official, organization-sanctioned episodes of information transmission
– informal communication - more unofficial
• grapevine - the social network of informal communications
– helps people to interpret the organization
– conveys information that the formal system leaves unsaid
– Managing informal communication
managers need to work with the grapevine
talk to the key people
prevent rumors from starting
neutralize rumors once they have started
Organizational Communication (cont.)
• Boundarylessness
– boundaryless organization - organization in which there are no barriers to information flow
• ideas and information move to where they are most needed
• concept promoted and implemented by General Electric