Transcript Communication 1
Components of communication.
Communication is about sending and receiving
information or the transmission of information and
meaning from one party to another through using
exchanged between individuals, departments,
The two common elements in communication
are the sender and receiver.
The sender is the one who conveys an idea or
concept to others, to seek information or to
express a thought or emotion.
The receiver is the person to whom the
message is sent.
Information flows only in one direction –
from the sender to the receiver with no
A much common way of communication
because it is faster and easier for the
sender and there is no trouble from
There may be mistakes in transmission of
A process in which information flows in
two-directions –the receiver provides
feedback and the sender receptive to the
It is more accurate and fewer mistakes in
But it is time-consuming and more difficult
for the sender.
Transmission of a message from a sender to a receiver in an
◦ To select symbols with which to compose a message.
◦ The tangible formulation of an idea to be sent to a receiver.
◦ The carrier of a communication.
◦ To translate the symbols used in a message for the purpose
of interpreting its meaning.
◦ A response by the receiver to the sender’s communication.
• Information passes downwards or upwards in the organization.
• Downward communication means that the manager tells employees about a
decision that has been already made. It allows decisions to carried out
• Upward communication refers to employees’ giving feedback to the manager
about the decision. It helps managers to understand employees’ ideas on the
• People in the same level within an organization pass information to each
• It can strengthen the understanding and coordination between people in
Refers to the messages and information sent
from top management to subordinates in a
It usually encompasses the following five
1. Implementation of goals and strategies:
Communicating new strategies & goals provides
information about specific targets & expected
2. Job instructions and rationale
These are directives on how to do a specific task and
how the job relates to other organizational
3. Procedures and Practices
These are messages defining the organizations
policies, rules, regulations, benefits and structural
4. Performance feedback
These messages appraise how well individuals and
departments are doing their jobs.
These messages are designed to motivate employees
to adopt the company’s mission and cultural values
to participate in special ceremonies.
These are the messages that flow from the lower to
the higher levels in the organization. Most
organizations take pains to build in healthy
channels for upward communication. Employees
need to report progress, and provide feedback on
Many organizations make a great effort to facilitate
upward communication. Mechanisms include
suggestion boxes, employee surveys, open-door
policies, management information system reports,
& face to face conversations between workers and
Five types of information communicated upward :
1. Problems & Exceptions
These messages describe serious problems with &
exceptions to routine performance in order to
make senior managers aware of difficulties.
2. Suggestions for Improvement
These messages are ideas for improving task related
procedures to increase quality or efficiency.
3. Performance Report
These messages include periodic reports that inform
management how individuals & departments are
4. Grievances & Disputes
These messages are employee complaints & conflicts
that travel up the hierarchy for a hearing & possible
5. Financial & Accounting Information
These messages relate to costs, accounts receivable,
investment & other matters of interest to senior
It is the lateral exchange of messages among peers or
coworkers. It may occur within or across departments. The
objective of horizontal communication is to inform, request
support and coordinate activities.
It is particularly important in learning organizations, where
teams of workers are continuously solving problems &
searching for new ways of doing things.
Three categories of Horizontal communication:
Interdepartmental problem solving
These messages take place among members of the same
department and concern task accomplishment.
Interdepartmental messages facilitate the accomplishment of
joint projects or tasks.
Change initiatives & improvements
These messages are designed to share information among
teams & departments that can help the organization change,
grow & improve.
◦ Letters, Memos, Reports, Forms , Notice boards
and Internal magazines or newspapers
Messages can be revised several times.
The sender can not receive immediate
Face-to-face discussions, telephone conservations,
formal presentations and speeches
Advantages: Questions can be asked and answered
directly; feedback is immediate; and the sender’s
attitude can be sensed.
Disadvantages: few permanent records
Communication through electronic media such as
mobile phone, paging devises, lap top computers,
E-mail, fax machines, and electronic notice boards
Messages can be delivered instantly, over long
distances, and to a large number of people.
But not all people have can access to the media.
It is important to understand that each communication
Channel has advantages and disadvantages and each can be
an effective means of communication in the appropriate
circumstances. Channel selection depends on whether the
message is routine or non-routine.
Non-routine messages – typically ambiguous, concern novel
events, & impose great potential for misunderstanding, time
pressure and surprise.
Routine messages – convey data or statistics or simply put
into words what was agreed upon.