Transcript Self-Disclosure Final
FUNDAMENTALS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING
Instructor: Shelby Reigstad
Student: Haddish Abadi
06 November 2012
Self-disclosure is a communication process that moves from
the relatively shallow, non-intimate levels, to deeper and
more personal levels as relationships gradually develop
(Altman & Taylor 1973, cited in Floyd, 2009).
Human conversation (30-40% of everyday speech)
- relays information to others about one’s private
experiences or personal relationships (Tamir & Jason, 2012).
• “The act of giving others information about oneself that one
believes they do not already have” (Floyd, 2009).
• “Act of revealing personal information to others.
- Plays a central role in the formation and maintenance of
close relationships” (Bareket & Shahar, 2011).
• Personal information communicated verbally, nonverbally or
written to another person (Omarzu, 2010).
• Voluntary sharing a part of yourself, that is, your inner
being, thoughts, & emotions with someone else.
1. Social Penetration Theory (SPT)
Developed by Irwin Altman & Dalmas Taylor.
Predicts that as relationships develop, communication
increases in breadth and depth,” (Floyd, 2009).
“As relationships develop, communication moves from
relatively shallow, non-intimate levels to deeper, more
personal ones,” (Altman & Taylor, 1973).
Proposes that closeness occurs through a gradual process of
The Johari Window
The Arena : Information
known by self & others.
The Facade : Information
known-by-self but not
The Unknown :
Information not knownby-self and not knownby-others.
Known by Self
Information known-byothers but not known-byself.
Unknown by Self
2. Principles of Self-disclosure
2.1 Self-disclosure varies in breadth & depth:
– Breadth: the number of topics or content areas
referred to disclosure.
– Depth: intensity of the discourse. (Omarzu, 2000)
• Self-disclosure over time is like peeling away the
layers of an onion.
The Onion Analogy
depth of your
Intimacy of the
topics a person selfdiscloses to another.
Range of topics
that a person
range of topics
… Principles of Self-disclosure
2.2 Self-disclosure follows a process
Closeness develops over time
As people get to know to each other, they
reveal more and more information about
2.3 It is intentional and truthful.
It must meet two conditions:
a) Deliberately share information about
b) Information is true.
Intentionally giving false information about
ourselves is an act of deception.
…Principles of Self-disclosure
2.4 It is usually reciprocal.
Norm of reciprocity:
When we disclose things to
other people, we expect them
to disclose things to us in
2.5 It can serve many purposes.
- To share information
- To ask for help
- To build relationship, etc.
…Principles of Self-disclosure
2.6 Self-disclosure is influenced by cultural and gender roles.
Women, on average, do self-disclose more than men.
(Snell et. al, 1988)
Norms of the culture in which we grow up affect it.
(Altman & Taylor, 1987).
Americans and Europeans usually self-disclose to their
friends and family.
Most Asian cultures, value discretion and disclose only
under limited circumstances.
3. Benefits & Risks
Enhancement of relationship and trust
Self-disclosure maintains relationships and reinforces the
trust we share with those individuals.
When we disclose to other, they tend to disclose back to us.
Emotional release, reduces stress
Self-disclosure to trusted friends leads to emotional
It can also reduce the stress of holding on to a secret.
3. Benefits & Risks
Rejection by the listener
Due to distorted impressions: as when an HIV positive friend
self-discloses he may be rejected.
Reduction of one’s autonomy & personal integrity.
Violation of other people’s privacy
When we disclose information (gossip) to third parties.
• Self-disclosure is a communication process that moves
from less intimacy to a deeper one.
• It is an act of giving information about oneself that you
believe other people do not already have.
• Self-disclosure maintains relationships and reinforces
the trust we share with those individuals.
• It is a communication process that is intentional and
Altman, I., & Taylor, D., (1973). Social Penetration: The development of Interpersonal Relationships, New
York: NY: St. Martin’s Press.
Altman, I., & Taylor, D. (1987). Communication in Interpersonal relationships. Social Penetration Theory. In
M.E. Roloff & G.R. Miller (eds.), Interpersonal Processes: New directions in communication research,
257-277. Newbury Park, CA.
Bareket-Bojmel, L. & G. Shahar. (2011). Emotional and Interpersonal Consequences of Self-Disclosure in a
Lived, Online Interaction: Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 30, No. 7, 2011, pp. 732-759.
Floyd, K. (2009). Interpersonal Communication: The Whole Story. New York: Mc Grow Hill.
Little, L. (2005) Leadership Communication and the Johari Window: Administrator, Vol. 24, Issue 3, p4-4.
Omarzu, J. (2000) A Disclosure Decision Model: Determining How and When Individuals Will Self-Disclosure:
Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2000, Vol. 4, No. 2, 174-185.
Snell, D. W., Miller, S. R., & Belk, S. S., (1988). Development of Emotional Self-disclosure Scale. Sex Roles, Vol.
18, Nos. 1/2.
Tamir, D., & P.M. Jason. (2012). Disclosing Information about the Self is Intrinsically Rewarding. Department
of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge;. PNAS, Vol. 109.