Anti-Imperialism or Imperialism?

Download Report

Transcript Anti-Imperialism or Imperialism?

Anti-Imperialism or Imperialism?
TR’s Perversion of the Monroe Doctrine
– Relations with Latin America would
take another turn-for-the-worse.
Nations like Venezuela and the
Dominican Republic were constantly
behind in loan payments to European
• Roosevelt worried that Europe would
take action to collect their money, and
thus violate the Monroe Doctrine. This
put TR in a bit of a pickle: would he
allow delinquency of payments or
allow Europe to breech the Monroe
Doctrine? He chose neither.
– His decision was the Roosevelt
Corollary (an addition to the Monroe
Doctrine). It said that the U.S. would
intervene in Latin America and
collect the debts for Europe.
• Whereas the Monroe Doctrine had said,
"Europe, don't intervene!" the Roosevelt
Corollary added, "We'll intervene for you!"
• In practical terms, the U.S. would take over
customs houses and collect taxes and/or
use the U.S. navy to seal off Latin American
ports for tax collection purposes.
– Latin America did not appreciate TR's
Big Stick being thrown at them again.
The Good Neighbor policy seemed to
be more like the "Bad Neighbor" policy.
• The Big Stick fell on Cuba in 1906.
Revolutionaries created great instability
and the Cuban president asked for U.S.
assistance. U.S. Marines moved in for 3
years to offer their help. Still, it was seen
as another Bad Neighbor policy move by
the bully U.S.
Voyage of the Great White Fleet
Roosevelt Corollary
President Theodore Roosevelt shared his Roosevelt Corollary
with Congress in 1904. It was his addition to the Monroe
Doctrine. It said that the U.S. would intervene in the finances of
smaller countries in the Western Hemisphere. The U.S. wanted
to help these countries and prevent the Europeans from taking
them over.
Big Stick Diplomacy
Roosevelt's foreign policy was called "big stick diplomacy." It
came from the saying, "Speak softly, but carry a big stick."
Roosevelt used a "big stick," or threat of using military force, to
protect America's interests. This policy was especially prevalent
when dealing with Europe and Latin America.
– The Americans gained the upper hand in 1901. President
McKinley sent William H. Taft to serve as the Philippines'
civil governor.
• A large (350 pounds) and jovial man, Cincinnatian Taft got along
well with the Filipinos. They generally liked him and he called them
his "little brown brothers."
• Under Taft, America pursued a policy called "benevolent assimilation"—to kindly
bring the Philippines up to modern civilization. The process was slow but it bore
fruits… (AKA Dollar Diplomacy)
– With millions in American money, infrastructure (roads, sanitation, etc.) was
greatly improved. Public health improved as well.
– Trade between the U.S. and the Philippines began, largely in sugar.
– Schools were built and American teachers were sent over.
– Still, the Filipino's wanted their freedom, and independence was finally
granted just after WWII, on July 4, 1946.
Dollar Diplomacy
President Taft developed the concept
of Dollar Diplomacy to deal with other
countries, especially those in Latin
America. This policy said that the U.S.
should use its financial strength, not
its military power, to influence other
countries. It encouraged Americans to
invest money in foreign markets.
Moralistic Diplomacy in Mexico
– For years, the resources of Mexico
had been used by American oil,
railroad, and mining businesses. The
Mexican people were extremely poor
and they revolted in 1913.
• The president was assassinated. Placed
as president was an Indian, Gen.
Victoriano Huerta. The result of the
chaos was a massive immigration from
Mexico to Texas, New Mexico, Arizona,
and California.
– Huerta's regime put Wilson in a tight
• The revolutionaries in Mexico were
violent and threatened American lives
and property. Americans called for
Wilson to offer protection but, he
would not.
• On the flip side, Wilson also would not
recognize Huerta and his regime.
Wilson allowed American arms to go to
Huerta's rivals Venustiano Carranza
and Francisco "Pancho" Villa (at right).
– Carranza's rival Pancho Villa began
stirring up trouble. Pancho Villa was
something of a Mexican Robin Hood. He
was hated by some who considered him
a thief and murderer; he was loved by
some who saw him as fighting for the
"little man."
• Pancho Villa raided a train, kidnapped 16
American mining engineers, and killed them.
• He and his men raided Columbus, New
Mexico and killed 19 more people.
– Wilson sent the Army, headed by Gen.
John. J. Pershing, after Pancho Villa.
• Pershing took a few thousand troops into
Mexico, fought both Carranza's and Villa's
troops, but couldn't catch Pancho Villa.
• While hunting Villa, World War I broke out
and Pershing was recalled. (Villa would soon
be murdered by a Mexican rival.)
Missionary Diplomacy (AKA Moral Diplomacy)
Missionary Diplomacy was a U.S. foreign policy
concerning Latin America during the administration of
President Woodrow Wilson. Under Missionary
Diplomacy, the United States attempted to spread
democracy to other nations of the Western
Hemisphere. Wilson believed that a democratic system
would bring as much success to Latin American
nations as it had to the United States. Unfortunately,
this meant that Wilson often used the U.S. military to
forcibly remove Latin American governments he did not
approve of. The U.S. intervened in Mexico, Haiti, Cuba,
Panama, and Nicaragua during Wilson's presidency