Cold War - St. John the Baptist Diocesan High School

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Transcript Cold War - St. John the Baptist Diocesan High School

Cold War
1945 - 1990
United Nations
World Peacekeeping Organization
Security Council – 11 member, 5 perm
Who are they?
 Each of the 5 have veto power to prevent members
from voting as a bloc to override the others
General Assembly
What kind of war?
Political war between the US and Soviet Union
Communism vs. Democracy
Superpowers Aims and Actions
Encourage democracy
Prevent communism
Access to raw materials and
Rebuild European governments
to promote stability and create
new markets
Reunite Germany to stabilize it
and increase Europe’s Security
Encourage communism
World wide workers revolution
Rebuild economy with Eastern
Europe's industrial equipment
and raw materials
Control E. Europe to protect
Soviet borders and balance US
Keep Germany divided to
prevent its waging war again
Potsdam Conference
Potsdam – Truman and Stalin
Serious differences about Germany
 Stalin refused to allow elections
 US refused to give secrets on Atomic Bomb
 Cold War officially begins!
Eastern Europe
Stalin put Communist Gov’ts in E. Europe
Trade between E/W Europe cut off
Iron Curtin – isolationism
Travel limited between E/W
E. Europe countries – satellites of USSR
President during early stages of Cold War
Truman Doctrine
Send aid to countries in danger – Turkey & Greece
 Promised to give financial, military, or food aid to a
country promising to fight communism
Policy  Containment
Marked by Truman Doctrine
 Not to overturn or fight communism itself but we
are going to prevent the spread of it
Marshall Plan
Massive economic aid package designed to
strengthen democratic governments and lessen
the appeal of communism.
2 superpowers – US and USSR
Nuclear weapons
Ideological systems
US – Democratic
 USSR – Communist
Berlin Airlift
 Zones – Berlin under Soviet Control
 USSR announced that GB,FR, and US
could not use land routes to Berlin that
passed through Soviet occupation
 Therefore US couldn’t get to W. Berlin
 Dropped supplies and food - within a year
Stalin backed off
Germany divided –
East Germany
West Germany
Wall – separated East and West Berlin
Berlin Wall
 North Atlantic Treaty Organization
 US, GB, FR, Italy, Belgium, +
 An armed attack against one or more of them
in Europe or North America shall be
considered an attack against all
 Warsaw Pact
 Soviet Union and seven of its satellites in
Eastern Europe
 Mutual
military cooperation
Space Race
 competition to achieve technological
 1957, USSR launched Sputnik, an orbiting
satellite using long-range rockets
 US fearful
 Resulted in development of ICBMs
(Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles)
Space Race
U.S. countered with creation of NASA
 1961, Soviets sent world’s first cosmonaut,
Yuri Gagarin, into orbit.
 1969, Apollo Program put first man on the
moon; 4 more moon landings followed by
1972. – US
Nuclear War
 Arms
 Build more powerful nuclear weapons
than enemy
 1949 – Soviets have the bomb
 H- Bomb
Game who had the most nuclear weapons
 Raised tension and fear.
Willingness to go to the edge of war
Required nuclear weapons and airplanes
Korean War
North Korea
South Korea
North and South Korea
 North – Communists – why? USSR Japan WW2
 South - Nationalists
38th Parallel
North Korea – June 25, 1950
Invade South Korea
 Truman’s containment policy
 Asked for support of UN Security Council
 Soviet Union not present….why?
 15 nations participate – General Douglas MacArthur
September 1950
Entire Korean peninsula
MacArthur attacks
½ retreat, rest surrender
Pushed across 38th parallel
Back to the Chinese border
China sends 300,000 troops
Push UN troops back to S. Korea
MacArthur – nuclear attack
Truman – prevent not start
MacArthur fired
1952- UN troops control S. Korea
1953 – cease fire
4 million dead
Post War
North Korea – Sung
 Industry, collective farms, military
 1994 – Kim
Nuclear weapons
 South Korea
 Democratic government
 Developed industry and foreign trade
1954 Vietnam is split in two.
 Northern Vietnam is Communist under Ho Chi
 South Democratic under Ngo Dinh Diem
 Ho Chi Minh wants a unified communist Vietnam
 U.S. troops in 1962 start assisting Diem and South
Vietnam to stop the advancement of the Northern
 1973 President Nixon takes out troop from
Won independence in 1898 from Spain
60 Large U.S. influence In Cuba
 1952 Batista takes power
Repressive corrupt government
Fidel Castro (communist) uses Guerrilla warfare to
take control
Bay of Pigs
Cuban Missile Crisis
Easing of Cold War Tensions
Détente a period of time starting in the 1970’s that
there is an easing of tension between the Soviet
Union under Brezhnev and the United States Under
Arms control talks
 Cultural exchanges
 Trade Agreements
Ends with the invasion of Afghanistan
Tensions are on the rise
 Russian people did not like the War in Afghanistan
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Agreement
ICBM and SLBM limits
limit the manufacture of strategic nuclear weapons
Summer Olympics
Moscow, USSR
1980 Summer Olympics
United States Boycotts Summer Olympics bc
USSR invades Afghanistan
1980 Winter Olympics
Lake Placid, NY
Winter Olympics
USA Hockey Team
Political Victory  Why?
Ending of the Cold War
1985 Mikhail Gorbachev come to power in the Soviet
Wanted to end Cold War Tensions
 Pulled troops out of Afghanistan
Soviet economy is failing wanted to restructure it.
Process called Perestroika
Stimulate the economy
 Industry more efficient some free market reforms
 Negatives – High inflation: food and medicine shortages
Ending of the Cold War
 Glasnost – Gorbachev’s political policy
 Ended censorship
 Encouraged people to discuss openly
the problems in the Soviet Union
 Nationalist feeling started to erupt
 Balkan states of Estonia, Latvia, and
Lithuania regain Independence in 1991,
soon all the Soviet Republics declare
Ending of the Cold War
People of East want to be reunited and enjoy
same feeling of Freedom as the West Germans
and started protesting.
 1989 the Berlin Wall falls. East and West
Germany are United. Considered the end of the
Cold War.
 1989 free elections in Poland after the Solidarity
Post Cold War
Yeltsin – President
 Free market
 Ended price controls on
most goods
 Privatize state owned
 High unemployment
 Declining health care
 Inflation
 Malnutrition
1. Parliament, thinking he was moving too fast impeached him.
2. Using military force, Yeltsin disbanded Parliament and new one
Chechens, non Russian ethnic group tried to
declare independence.
Terrorist actions used on Russians
German Reunification
Free Elections in East Germany – Non
Communist government willing to unite with
West Germany.
West Germany chancellor Kohl
Currencies were merged and legislature voted to
move capital to Berlin