Transcript File

By: Estefani Hernandez
Example: The Truman Doctrine arose from a Picture:
speech delivered by President Truman
before a joint session of Congress on March
12, 1947. The immediate cause for the
speech was a recent announcement by the
British Government that, as of March 31, it
would no longer provide military and
economic assistance to the Greek
Government in its civil war against the Greek
Communist Party
Definition: With the Truman Doctrine,
President Harry S. Truman established that
the United States would provide political,
military and economic assistance to all
democratic nations under threat from
external or internal authoritarian forces. The
Truman Doctrine effectively reoriented U.S.
foreign policy, away from its usual stance of
withdrawal from regional conflicts not
directly involving the United States, to one of
possible intervention in far away conflicts.
Characteristic: Truman argued that the
United States could no longer stand by
and allow the forcible expansion of
Soviet totalitarianism into free,
independent nations, because
American national security now
depended upon more than just the
physical security of American territory.
Example: The Marshall Plan generated a Picture:
resurgence of European industrialization
and brought extensive investment into
the region. It was also a stimulant to the
U.S. economy by establishing markets for
American goods.
Definition: Secretary of State Marshall
became the only general ever to
receive a Nobel Prize for peace. The
Marshall Plan also institutionalized
and legitimized the concept of U.S.
foreign aid programs, which have
become a integral part of U.S.
foreign policy.
Character: In the immediate post-World
War II period, Europe remained ravaged
by war and thus susceptible to
exploitation by an internal and external
Communist threat. In a June 5, 1947,
speech to the graduating class at
Harvard University, Secretary of
State George C. Marshall issued a call for
a comprehensive program to rebuild
Example: During the Cuban
Missile Crisis, leaders of the U.S.
and the Soviet Union engaged in
a tense, 13-day political and
military standoff in October 1962
over the installation of nucleararmed Soviet missiles on Cuba,
just 90 miles from U.S. shores.
Definition: In a TV address on
October 22, 1962, President John
Kennedy (1917-63) notified
Americans about the presence
of the missiles, explained his
decision to enact a naval
blockade around Cuba and
made it clear the U.S. was
prepared to use military force if
necessary to neutralize this
perceived threat to national
Characteristic: disaster was
avoided when the U.S. agreed
to Soviet leader Nikita
Khrushchev's (1894-1971) offer to
remove the Cuban missiles in
exchange for the U.S. promising
not to invade Cuba. Kennedy
also secretly agreed to remove
U.S. missiles from Turkey.
Example: NATO is now divided into two
commands. Allied Command Operations
is headed by the Supreme Allied
Commander Europe (SACEUR). SACEUR
directs NATO forces and, in time of war,
controls all land, sea, and air operations.
Allied Command Transformation, with
headquarters at Norfolk, Va., is
responsible for making recommendations
on the strategic transformation of NATO
forces in the post-cold-war .
Definition: In 1999 the Czech Republic,
Hungary, and Poland joined. Bulgaria,
Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania,
Slovakia, and Slovenia joined five years
later, and Albania and Croatia joined in
2009, bringing the membership to 28.
Characteristic: (NATO), established
under the North Atlantic Treaty (Apr. 4,
1949) by Belgium, Canada, Denmark,
France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy,
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway,
Portugal, and the United States. Greece
and Turkey entered the alliance in 1952,
West Germany (now Germany) entered
in 1955, and Spain joined in 1982.
Bay of Pigs
Example: in 1959, Fidel Castro
came to power in an armed revolt
that overthrew Cuban dictator
Fulgencio Batista.
Definition: The U.S. government
distrusted Castro and was wary of
his relationship with Nikita
Khrushchev, the leader of the
Soviet Union.
Characteristic: President
Eisenhower approved the program
in March 1960. The CIA set up
training camps in Guatemala, and
by November the operation had
trained a small army for an assault
landing and guerilla warfare.
Example: Oct. 4, 1957 Sputnik 1, the first
human made object to orbit the Earth, was
launched by the USSR. It remained in space
until January 4,
Nov. 3, 1957 Sputnik 2, carrying a dog, was
launched by the USSR. It
remained in orbit until April 13, 1958.
Jan. 31, 1958 Explorer 1, the first U.S. satellite in
orbit, was launched into
space. It discovered the Earth’s radiation belt.
Mar. 5, 1958 Explorer 2 was launched and
failed to reach orbit. Mar. 17, 1958 Vanguard
1 satellite was launched into orbit. Although
communication with it was lost in 1964, it
remains the oldest
human made satellite still in orbit.
Characteristic: In October, 1957, the Soviet
Union launched the first satellite — named
Sputnik — to be hurled into orbit around the
Earth. Sputnik was actually no larger than a
beach ball and sent meaningless signals back
to earth, but it had a profound effect on the
thinking of citizens and governments around
the globe.
Example: The world greatly
changed when USA exploded the
H-bomb in 1952. This one bomb
was smaller in size than the
Hiroshima atomic bomb but 2500
times more powerful. The Russians
produced an H-bomb in 1953 and
the world became a much more
dangerous place.
Definition: In October 1957, the
world was introduced to the fear
of a missile attack when
Sputnik was launched. This was to
lead to ICBM’s : Inter-continental
ballistic missiles. As a result,
America built the DEW line around
the Artic - Defense
andEarly Warning system.
Characteristic: During the 1960’s,
the Russians put their money into
producing more missiles regardless
of quality while America built
fewer but better quality missiles the Atlas could go 5,000 miles at a
speed of 16,000 mph. By 1961,
there were enough bombs to
destroy the world.
Example: On November 14, 1908,
Joseph McCarthy was born into a
Roman Catholic family as the fifth
of nine children in Appleton,
Definition: a vociferous campaign
against alleged communists in the
US government and other
institutions carried out under
Senator Joseph McCarthy in the
period 1950–54. Many of the
accused were blacklisted or lost
their jobs, although most did not in
fact belong to the Communist Par
Characteristic: After receiving his
law diploma at Marquette
University, McCarthy dabbled in
unsuccessful law practices, and
indulged in gambling along the
way for extra financing.
Example: The House UnPicture:
American Activities
Committee (HUAC), a
committee of the U.S. House
of Representatives,
investigated allegations of
communist activity in the
U.S. during the early years of
the Cold War (1945-91).
Definition: Established in
1938, the committee
wielded its subpoena power
as a weapon and called
citizens to testify in highprofile hearings before
Characteristic: This
intimidating atmosphere
often produced dramatic
but questionable revelations
about Communists
infiltrating American
institutions and subversive
actions by well-known
Example: The weapons required
included space- and groundbased nuclear X-ray lasers,
subatomic particle beams, and
computer-guided projectiles fired
by electromagnetic rail guns—all
under the central control of a
supercomputer system. STRATEGIC DEFENSE
Definition: The Strategic
Defense Initiative (SDI), also known
as Star Wars, was a program first
initiated on March 23, 1983 under
President Ronald Reagan.
Thus, as the reality of creating
numerous nuclear plants
diminished, so did the ambitious
designs. By the end of SDI, the
primary focus of the weapons
design group was focused on
“land based kinetic energy
weapons.” These weapons were
essentially guided missile
Example: Peace through Strength
Ended the Cold War
During the presidential election of
1980 candidate Ronald Reagan
clearly expressed his views on
military strength to win the Cold
Definition: This forced the
Soviet Union to try to match
America’s military, but with a
weaker economy it overextended
itself in an arms race.
His opponent, Jimmy Carter, was
wary of this policy and said,
“Reagan would re-ignite the 'arms
race', and would increase the risk
of war.
Example: President Nixon
hoped to thaw the Cold War
and ease relations between the
nuclear superpowers.
Definition: By his
1968 election victory,
the two nations had been
bitter rivals for over 20 years.
Several flashpoints had
threatened the world and led
the U.S. to implement a policy
of Mutually Assured Destruction.
Nixon’s efforts led to arms
agreements, a lessening of
tensions, and major Soviet
Example: The Polish Solidarity
Movement was started by Lech
Walesa in the 1980’s. He was
concerned with how unfair the
workers in the shipyards were
Definition: In July of 1980 the
government had to raise prices
and cut wages which brought up
more strikes from the labor union.
Moscow later stepped up on the
Polish government leading to
having no control of Polish society.
Characteristic: . It was also
responsible for transforming Poland
from communism to a Democracy.