ColdWar Power Pointx

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Transcript ColdWar Power Pointx

The Early
Cold War:
IB History
The Cold War:
•Foundations and
“Americans must accept
wholeheartedly our duty and our
opportunity as the most powerful
and vital nation in the world and
in consequence to assert upon
the world the full impact of our
influence, for such means we
see fit.”
–Henry Luce (1941)
Founder / Publisher of Fortune
and Time Magazines
Essential Questions
• What does the term “Cold War” Mean?
• How did the legacies of WWII build the
• Outcomes of Cold War – Impact on the United
• What caused the Cold War?
• What was the Ideology of Containment? How
did the USSR respond?
• What were the U.S.’s Policies?
Two Interpretations of
Cold War
• The Cold War Was Not Inevitable
– Political and Military Reality
– Misunderstandings Between Policy
Makers of U.S. and USSR
• The Cold War Represents a Paradox
– Conformity to “True American Values”
– Economic Prosperity and Socio Economic
Mobility of Middle- and Working Class
The Cold War
• What is a “cold” war? How is it
different from a “hot” war
• Phase One – 1945 – 1950 – Most
• Phase Two – 1950 – 1970s – 007
• Phase Three – 1970s – 1989 Detente
Legacies of WWII
The United States
• Economics
• Death and Destruction – 500,000
• Status in World
Europe – The Human Factor
• Germany – 6.8 million
• Soviet Union – 20.6 million
• Japan – Occupied
• China – Revolution
• French Indochina (Vietnam) – Nationalism and
War for Independence
Consequences of Legacies:
Shift in Power Structure
Western European Nations – Loss
of Power
• Impact of War
• Neo-colonialism – loss of “colonies”
Two Super Powers
• The United States – Democracy
• The Soviet Union - Communism
Essential Questions
• What are two origins of the
Cold War?
• What are three things that
George Kennan identified
about the USSR?
• Did we ever invade Russia
• How is communism different
then capitalism?
Origins of Cold War
• Red Scare of 1920’s
• German Industry – rebuild Russia
with our $$
• Control Europe?
– Wilson’s “making world safe for
• Satellite states
• Manhattan Project – USSR against
• Karl Marx – next transition of
Karl Marx The Communist
10 Planks of the Communist Manifesto
1. Abolition of property in land and application of all rents of land to public
2. A heavy progressive or graduated income tax.
3. Abolition of all right of inheritance.
4. Confiscation of the property of all emigrants and rebels.
5. Centralization of credit in the hands of the State, by means of a national
bank with State capital and an exclusive monopoly.
6. Centralization of the means of communication and transport in the hands
of the State.
7. Extension of factories and instruments of production owned by the State;
the bringing into cultivation of waste-lands, and the improvement of the
soil generally in accordance with a common plan.
8. Equal liability of all to labor. Establishment of industrial armies, especially
for agriculture.
9. Combination of agriculture with manufacturing industries; gradual abolition
of the distinction between town and country, by a more equal distribution
of the population over the country.
10. Free education for all children in public schools. Abolition of children's
factory labor in its present form. Combination of education with industrial
production, &c.
Players in Cold War:
Two views
United States
• Political Perspective: Democracy
• Fear: Ghost of Depression Past and Depression
• Need: Free Markets for Trade – Global Economy
The Soviet Union
• Political Perspective: Communism
• Fear: National Security – Future Invasions
• Need: “Buffer Zone” – Eastern Europe and Weak
Ideology: Policy of
• What is Containment?
Underlying Assumptions:
• The Soviet Union Planned to Expand Its
• Impact on US:
– Notion of Democracy and Self Determination of Nations
– Economic Impact – Rob US of its Global Markets
George Kennan
• Concept of Containment
• Recommendations: Economic & Education
What did George Kennan
1. The history of Russia has been one of hostile
neighbors and a constant fear of attack; it's
inevitable that Russia will try to take over its
neighbor states to provide a buffer zone.
2. The United States has a duty to confront Soviet
aggression with "unalterable counterforce.“
3. The United States must maintain a policy of
long-term containment of Soviet aggression.
Outcomes for United
• Economic Prosperity
• Conformity & Consensus At Home
• The American “Empire”
– Social & Reform Darwinism
– Spread Democracy and Capitalism
– Vietnam – Case Study
Outcomes cont: The
Tentacles of Communism
Domestic Anticommunism: Fear of Subversive Ideas
• “McCarthyism”
• House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
American Society – Conformity
• Women
• Racial Ethnic Groups
• Members of Labor Unions
• Educators and Journalists
• Left-leaning liberals, socialists, members of the American
communist party
Part I:
& Confrontation”
Essential Questions
1. What was the Truman Doctrine and
how did it impact the Cold War
2. How was the Marshall Plan going to
help stop communism from
spreading in Europe?
3. Why was the Berlin Airlift was one
of the most tense moment of the
Cold War?
Essential Questions
• Why was the Berlin Airlift was one of
the most tense moment of the Cold
• What was NSC 68, what event caused
it come about, and why was it so
significant to our future with the USSR?
• Explain the causes and significance of
the Korean War.
The Ideological Struggle
Soviet &
Eastern Bloc
[“Iron Curtain”]
GOAL  spread worldwide Communism
US & the
GOAL  “Containment”
of Communism & the
eventual collapse of the
Communist world.
[George Kennan]
 Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]
 Arms Race [nuclear escalation]
 Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts
of Third World peoples [Communist govt. &
command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist
economy]  “proxy wars”
 Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
Focus on
Berlin, 1945
• After World War II,
Germany was divided
into four zones,
occupied by French,
British, American, and
Soviet troops.
• Occupation zones after
1945. Berlin is the
multinational area within
the Soviet zone.
The “Iron Curtain”
From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the
Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the
Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient
capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.
-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
A peek
under the
March 6th
Truman Doctrine [1947]
1. Civil War in Greece-communists vs.
freedom fighters
2. Turkey under pressure from the USSR
for concessions in the Dardanelles.
3. “The U. S. should support free peoples
throughout the world who were
resisting takeovers by armed minorities
or outside pressures…We must assist
free peoples to work out their own
destinies in their own way.”
4. The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400
million in aid.
Marshall Plan [1948]
1. “European Recovery
2. Secretary of State,
George Marshall
3. The U. S. should provide
aid to all European nations
that need it. This move
is not against any country or doctrine,
but against hunger, poverty, desperation,
and chaos.
4. $12.5 billion of US aid to Western
Europe extended to Eastern Europe &
USSR, [but this was rejected].
The U.S. gave over $12 billion in aid to European countries between
1948 and 1952, helping to improve their economies and lessen the
chance of communist revolutions.
Partition of Germany
• U.S. and W. Europeans felt German
economy vital to recovery of Europe
• 1949, West Germany became an
independent country when US,
France and Britain gave back each
of their zones
• Federal Republic of Germany – led
by Konrad Adenauer
• 1949, East Germany formally
established – Democratic Republic
of Germany led by Walter Ulbricht
(1883-1973); communist regime
influenced by Moscow
Post-War Germany
Berlin Blockade & Airlift
In response, the
Soviets cut off
West Berlin
from the rest of
the world with
a blockade.
Eventual site of the Berlin Wall
A huge airlift:
· President
decided to
avoid the
blockade by
flying in food
and other
supplies to the
needy people
of West Berlin.
· At times, over
5,000 tons of
arrived daily.
A huge airlift cont…
Images of soldiers
loading planes and a
German girl.
Blockade ended in
1949 with Stalin
giving in, but keeps
Germany separate
North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (1949)
 United States
 Luxemburg
 Belgium
 Netherlands
 Britain
 Norway
 Canada
 Portugal
 Denmark
 1952: Greece &
 France
 Iceland
 Italy
 1955: West Germany
 1983: Spain
Warsaw Pact (1955)
} U. S. S. R.
} East Germany
} Albania
} Hungary
} Bulgaria
} Poland
} Czechoslovakia
} Rumania
The Arms Race:
A “Missile Gap?”
} The Soviet Union
exploded its first
A-bomb in 1949.
} Now there were
two nuclear
Change in Policy
• In response to the explosion of a
Soviet Atomic bomb, which changed
everything, the US came up with
National Security Council Paper 68
– Written by Paul Nitze and Policy
Planning Staff
– Initialed by Truman in April 1950
Assumptions of
NSC 68
With destruction of German and Japanese power and the decline
of Britain and France, world power was being contested for only
by US and USSR
Soviets’ top priority was establish absolute power over their
homeland and Eastern Europe and they were being driven by
communism, a “new fanatic faith” that “seeks to impose its
absolute authority over the rest of the world”
Conflict between the two superpowers was endemic and due to
growing number of weapons of mass destruction, every individual
faces the threat of annihilation
Since Soviets relied on military power to get their way, they
could therefore be checked by US military power
If this military power worked, then there was hope because
Soviets’ weak link was relations with Soviet people who, once the
US showed it could contain and drive back Soviets, would foster
internal seeds of destruction
THUS saw not just containment but destruction of Soviets
NSC 68
• Based on its assumptions, Secretary
of State Dean Acheson favored:
• Creation of large military force so
would not have to rely on nuclear
• Establishment of alliances
• PROBLEM: Assumption that Stalin
understood only power, so no use to
negotiate until build up complete—
dismissed idea that this militarization
could undermine our system.
Mao’s Revolution: 1949
Who lost China? – A 2nd } Power!
In mid-1947, Marshall, now
Secretary of State, sent Gen.
Albert Wedemeyer to investigate
situation in China
•Wedemeyer’s report recommended
massive aid and 10,000 advisors to help
the Chinese Nationalist beat Mao’s
Communist forces
•Marshall knew this would be
inadequate so he did not support or
share this report (kept secret)
•fueling latter charges that Truman lost
The Loss of China
• In October 1949, Mao Zedong
and the communists won the civil
• Jiang and the remnants of the KMT
(Kuomintang) fled to Formosa, which
they would call Taiwan
• In February 1950, Mao and Stalin
signed a mutual assistance pact
Essential Questions
• What is one (probable) cause of the
Korean War?
• Why do the Chinese get involved in this
war? How does this cause friction
between Truman and MacArthur?
• Why is the Korean War significant and
what is it’s impact?
The Korean War: A “Police
Action” (1950-1953)
Kim Il-Sung
Syngman Rhee
“Domino Theory”
On the road to Korea
After World War II, Japanese-occupied Korea was
temporarily divided into northern and southern parts.
The Soviet Union controlled Korea north of the 38th
parallel. The United States would be in charge of Korea
south of the 38th parallel.
The Soviet Union established a communist government in
North Korea. North Korea called itself the Democratic
People’s Republic of Korea. Its first leader was Kim Il
In South Korea, the United States promoted a democratic
system. The Republic of Korea was led by president
Syngman Rhee.
Causes of Korean War
1st Theory
• USSR launches a probe, to test things out and
see if the Americans will respond: will the
Americans stand up to them, or let Korea be
taken over?
• Americans make a statement that Korea is
outside their defense perimeter,
therefore, Soviet Union felt they could get away
with it
– this theory more consistent with Soviet action
in Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia while
they were establishing their eastern sphere of
influence (1945 - 48)
Causes of Korean war
2nd Theory
• Soviet Union was trying to set up a trap
for China which turned communist in 1949
• China is a young upstart nation, as the theory
goes, that Stalin wants to put in their place
i.e. second to or behind the USSR
• So Stalin starts a war to create a situation
where China will feel compelled to get
involved, get into a direct conflict with the
USA, who will humiliate the Chinese and put
them in their place
Causes of Korean war
3rd Theory
• China, acting on its own, wanted to
show the world they were a strong
communist nation
• problem with this theory is
that China had just gone through 23
years of war, last thing China needed
was another major conflict
Causes of Korean war
4th Theory
• Kim Il Sung, leader of N. Korea, took it
upon himself to attack S. Korea, which
was a country only because it was
divided by the Cold War
• Kim Il Sung dies in 1994, taking his
secret to the grave
The War Begins
• North Korea invaded South
June 25, 1950.
Korea on
• Most leaders in the United
surprised by this attack.
States were
– American troops stationed in South
Korea since WW II had recently completed their withdrawal.
– The United States was not well prepared to fight in Korea;
however, the decision to fight was made quickly.
• Truman decided that the United States would take a
stand against Communist aggression in Korea – we
back Syngman Rhee’s democratic government
• The United Nations Security Council voted
unanimously in favor of the use of force in Koreabecomes a POLICE ACTION against North Korea
• This attack also confirmed the analysis of NSC 68 – Soviets
were hell bent to spread communism throughout the world
Chinese involvement?
• Chairman Mao Tse Tung is watching
American forces closely
• He has 500,000 troops waiting in
Manchuria for the arrival of American
• As the NKPA is pushed back across
the 38th parallel, Washington gives
MacArthur permission to cross the
parallel, but he is told:
– Stop at any sign of Russian or Chinese
– DO NOT cross or even fire in the direction of the
Yalu River
Truman vs. MacArthur
• General Douglas MacArthur, who had been
put in charge of there construction of Japan,
was running the Korean War
– Pres. Truman is getting nervous and summons
MacArthur to Wake Island For a Face-to-Face.
• MacArthur is upset that he is interrupted and
has to leave during his campaign.
• Truman Concerned about the possibility of
Chinese intervention
– MacArthur’s arrogance abounds
• MacArthur claims that the war will be over by
Thanksgiving and the men will be home by
Combat in Korea
UN forces made an amphibious landing behind
North Korean lines at the port city of Inchon.
MacArthur’s surprise attack worked beautifully.
The September 1950 invasion at Inchon was a
key victory for UN forces.
Offensives from Inchon and Pusan resulted in
the destruction or surrender of huge numbers of
North Korean troops.
By October 1950 all of South Korea was back in
UN hands.
“In order to hook a big fish, you must let the
fish taste your bait.” – Chairman Mao Tse Tung
UN forces had begun to move into North Korea,
but the when 260,000 Chinese troops joined the
North Koreans the UN began to retreat.
UN forces retreated all the way back to Seoul. It
was the longest fallback in U.S. military history.
General MacArthur Is
• MacArthur said that the UN faced a choice between defeat by
the Chinese or a major war with them.
• He wanted to expand the war by bombing the Chinese
mainland, perhaps even with atomic weapons.
• Lieutenant General Matthew Ridgway
stopped the Chinese onslaught and
pushed them back to the 38th parallel—
without needing to expand the war or use
atomic weapons.
• MacArthur disagreed with President Truman about the direction
of the fighting and challenged the authority of the president.
• Truman fired MacArthur.
• Many Americans were outraged at the firing of MacArthur.
Fighting Ends in Korea
Negotiating for Peace
• In July 1951 peace talks began.
• One major obstacle was the
location of the boundary between
the Koreas.
• Meanwhile battles such as
Bloody Ridge and Heartbreak
Ridge continued, inflicting heavy
casualties on both sides.
• In October 1951 peace talks
stalled over prisoners of war.
• Negotiators in Panmunjom
continued to argue over the
details of a peace agreement
throughout 1952.
Events of 1953
• In 1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower—
who promised to end the war—
was elected president.
• Fighting remained deadly—in the
final two months of the war, UN
forces lost 57,000 men and the
Communists lost 100,000.
• An armistice agreement was
finally reached on July 27, 1953.
• The Korean War left the map of
Korea looking much as it had in
• The human costs were huge.
Impact of Korean War
• First armed conflict of the Cold War
• Proxy war-a war fought by the two
superpowers would fight in another country,
forcing the people in that nation to suffer the
bulk of the destruction and death involved in a
war between such large nations
• Cold War not limited to Europe
• DMZ (Demilitarized Zone) established
between the two countries - heavily
guarded by both sides
• 155 miles long, 2.5 miles wide, most heavily
guarded in the entire world
Essential Questions
• How does the Cold War affect domestic
(home) affairs?
• Who was someone accused of being a
communist during the Cold War? What
happened to them?
• How does Senator Joe McCarthy rise
to power during the Cold War?
Domestic Cold War
• In 1947, the House Committee on
Un-American Activities (HUAC) investigated
supposed communists in Hollywood – 41 interviewed
• A group of actors, named “The Hollywood Ten,”
refused to testify and on November 24, 1947,were
blacklisted and sent to jail for a year
– claimed they were protected by the 1st Amendment – court
• Many others did cooperate and name names
resulting in the blacklisting of some 250 Hollywood
• Once blacklisted, it was almost impossible for these
people to get a job in Hollywood (or any where else
for that matter)
Alger Hiss
• In January 1950, Alger Hiss
was convicted of PERJURY
• Journalist Whittaker
Chambers claimed that in the 1930s Hiss
had been a fellow member of the Communist
party and had passed secret government
documents to him
• Hiss denied it
• Role of young California Congressman, R.M.
• Hiss was sentenced to 44 months in jail.
Richard Nixon (right) and the chief investigator for the House
Committee on Un-American Activities inspect microfilm of the
“pumpkin papers.” Hidden inside a pumpkin on the Maryland
farm of committee informant Whittaker Chambers, the papers
helped convict Alger Hiss of perjury. Nixon’s role in pursuing
Hiss launched a political career that took him to the White
• In the same month, a spy
ring was discovered
• It included Klaus Fuchs, a
German born British
scientist who had helped
develop the atomic bomb
and had passed secrets to
the Russians both during
and immediately after WWII
• The FBI traced the trail
back to Fuch's courier,
Harry Gold
• From Gold to one of his
contacts, former army
machinist David
• And from Greenglass to his
sister and brother-in-law,
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
• Gold, Greenglass
and his wife Ruth
cooperated with the
authorities, the
Rosenbergs did not
• They were tried and
convicted of
• They were executed
in June 1953,leaving
two young sons
Essential Questions
• Why does Senator Joseph McCarthy
latch onto communism in 1950?
• How would you describe his attacks on
Americans? How does he get so many
people to listen to him?
• What causes him to finally fall out of the
public spotlight in 1954? How did this
cause long term damage to America?
Are you a Communist?
Senator Joseph McCarthy
• January 1950, Joseph
McCarthy needed an issue
to win re-election in1952
• He seized on communism,
declaring in a speech in
West Virginia that 205
communists infested the
State Department
• Later pressed for proof, the
numbers changed to 81, 57
and “a lot.”
• A Senate investigation
concluded that McCarthy’s
accusations were empty
• Senator Joe McCarthy used press releases and carefully
managed congressional committee hearings to attack
suspected Communists, although he had almost no hard
information. At the Army-McCarthy hearings in June 1954, he
clashed with attorney Joseph Welch. Here Welch listens as
McCarthy points to Oregon on a map that supposedly showed
Communist Party organization in the United States.
Joseph McCarthy
• McCarthyism seemed to reign triumphant as
Republicans, including now Senator Nixon, won big
• Book burners tried to burn Robin Hood claiming it
was communist
• Racists claimed those who said Blacks weren’t
treated fairly were probably communist
• McCarthy launched unending attacks on the State
Dept, especially on Dean Acheson, that drove many,
particularly knowledgeable East Asian hands
accused of “losing China,” out of the government
Joseph McCarthy
• In 1952, he criticized George
Marshall, the man who had
championed then presidential
candidate Ike (who made no
• George Marshall was the
creator of the Marshall Plan and was a WWII
• Loved by many Americans
• McCarthy claimed that Marshall was part of a
“conspiracy so immense and an infamy so
black as to dwarf any previous such venture
in the history of man.”
Army vs. McCarthy
• McCarthy’s end
• McCarthy’s assistant was drafted by
the U.S. Army, and wanted special
exception to not fight-special treatment
• McCarthy claims the military has been
infiltrated by communists and he needs
to investigate
• Army-McCarthy hearings started in
April 1954 and lasted for 36 days
Army vs. McCarthy cont…
• Hearings were televised
• Most Americans first view of McCarthy
• Many believed that he was a well-spoken
proper man
• They were surprised by his language and
savage attacks on the Army
• He fabricated evidence for the case, and had
been caught cropping pictures and offering
fake letters before
• After 1954 elections, Senate finally censured
McCarthy and his power faded (he died1957)
• Unfortunately, despite McCarthy’s death, his
policies remained alive
Long Term Results
• Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, had
tried to please fervent anti-communists by
letting one control the State Department
• As a result, hundreds left foreign service and
morale and standards sank, especially in Asia
• Complete decimation of the Communist Party
in America
• Aborted much needed reforms (New Deal)
• Effective criticism of American foreign policy
• Fear of national security took precedence of
ordinary law and civil rights/liberties
The Suez Crisis: 1956-1957
Essential Questions
• How does America’s and Russia's
policy change in the beginning of the
• Why does East Germany (at the
approval of the Soviet Union) create the
Berlin Wall?
• Describe the Bay of Pigs invasion.
How was this an example of American
Eisenhower becomes
President in 1952
• Committed to fight the Cold War
• Stand up to Chinese and Russians
• He will defend U.S. interests around the
• Called Communism
• “a tyranny… attempting to make all of
humankind it chattel.”
• John Foster Dulles is Secretary of State
• Helps design U.S. foreign policy
• Thought containment was not enough
– Liberation against “Godless communism”
Nikita Khrushchev
• Part of a group of men who run Russia
after Stalin's death in 1953
• De-Stalinization
• Khrushchev initiates “The Thaw”
• Eliminates the central state authority
• Develop missile defensive/offensive
• Wants to sincerely (probably) improve
relations with West, but…
• He finally comes to power over all of
USSR in March 27th, 1958
Premier Nikita Khrushchev
About the capitalist
states, it doesn't
depend on you
whether we
(Soviet Union) exist.
If you don't like us,
don't accept our
invitations, and don't
invite us to come
to see you. Whether
you like it our not, history is on our
side. We will bury you. -- 1956
The Hungarian Uprising: 1956
Imre Nagy, Hungarian
Prime Minister
} Promised free
} This could lead to the
end of communist rule
in Hungary.
The Hungarian Uprising: 1956
• The Politburo (Presidium of the Central
Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet
Union) initially decided not to act because they
believed that Hungary would stay communist,
• Hungary asked to be removed from the Warsaw
Pact and the USSR decided to move in and
violently end revolution
• Thousands evacuated (up to 200,000)
to the West
• Time magazine named the
Hungarian Freedom Fighter for the
man of the year
Radio Free Europe/Radio
Sputnik I (1957)
The Russians have beaten America in
space—they have the technological edge!
“Kitchen Debate”
Cold War --->
<--- Technology
& Affluence
U-2 Spy Incident (1960)
Col. Francis Gary
Powers’ plane was
shot down over Soviet
U-2 Spy Incident (1960)
• Establish an airbase in Pakistan
– cover for a major communications intercept
operation run by the American National Security
Agency (NSA)
• Wanted info on the Soviet war machine
• Weapons sites, nuclear reactor output, etc…
• Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev stated that
an American “spy plane” had been shot
down (no mention of the pilot)
• America claimed the plane was from NASA
for weather research – autopilot mistake
• no pilot = no problem
U-2 Spy Plane
• On May 7, Khrushchev sprang his trap
and announced
• “I must tell you a secret. When I made my first
report I deliberately did not say that the pilot
was alive and well… and now just look how
many silly things [the Americans] have said.”
• They had recovered wreckage, photos,
and the pilots survival kit
• At Paris Summit, Eisenhower refused
to apologize
JFK elected President
• He is also a cold warrior
• Take any action necessary to protect
• In his Inaugural speech, he says the
famous quote:
• “ask not what your country can do for you, but
what you can do for your country”
• Battle against USSR is:
• “a struggle for supremacy between two
conflicting ideologies: Freedom under God
versus ruthless, godless tyranny
Paris, 1961
Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and
nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that
JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.
Creation of the Berlin Wall
•USSR tired of
seeing escapes to
•First it was
made with barbed
wire, but
eventually was all
•8 crossings from East to West Berlin
•Most famous is Checkpoint Charlie
•Wall went through 5 different versions
•President Eisenhower did send a battalion of
troops to protect Western interests
The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)
Ich bin ein Berliner!
President Kennedy
tells Berliners
that the West is
with them!
Khruschev Embraces Castro,
Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961)
Bay of Pigs invasion?
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the
Russians, and the other man blinked!
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Vietnam War: 1965-1973
“Prague Spring” (1968)
Former Czech President,
Alexander Dubček
Communism with a human face!
“Prague Spring” Dashed!
Dissidents/playwrights arrested [like
Vaclav Havel—future president of a free
Czech Republic].
4th French Republic: 1945-1958
1. Democratic, but politically unstable
[27 governments!]
2. Universal suffrage.
3. Weak President; powerful legislature
4. Many political parties [coalition
5. Failure to gracefully leave Indochina.
6. Botched the Suez War.
7. Failed to settle the Algerian Crisis.
5th French Republic
1. Powerful President.
* first: Charles
2. Weak Cabinet.
3. Weakened
4. Separation of
DeGaulle’s Achievements
1. Settled the Algerian
2. Made France a
nuclear power.
3. Sustained general
4. Maintained a stable,
democratic government.
5. Made France more
politically independent.
BUT, late ’60s student unrest and social
changes challenged him. In 1968 he resigned
& died of a heart attack in 1970.
Student Riots in Paris
(May, 1968)
Clement Attlee & the Labor
Party: 1945-1951
1. Limited socialist program
[modern welfare state].
 Natl. Insurance Act
 Natl. Health Service
2. Nationalized coal mines,
public utilities, steel
industry, the Bank of
England, RRs, motor
transportation, and aviation.
3. Social insurance legislation: “Cradle-to-Grave”
4. Socialized medicine  free national health care.
Clement Attlee & the Labor
Party: 1945-1951
6. Britain is in a big debt!
7. The beginning of the end of the
British Empire.
 India – 1947
 Palestine – 1948
 Kenya  Mau Mau
uprising - 1955
Churchill Returns: 1951-1955
He never really
tried to destroy the
“welfare state”
established by
Attlee’s government.
The Federated Republic
of Germany
1. Created in 1949 with
the capital at Bonn.
2. Its army limited to
12 divisions [275,000].
3. Konrad Adenauer, a
Christian Democrat,
was its 1st President.
 Coalition of moderates and conservatives.
 Pro-Western foreign policy.
 German “economic miracle.”
4. “Father of Modern Germany.”
Italy After WW II
1. Alcide de
Gasperi was
Italy’s P.M.
from 19481953
2. Coalition
[short and
Part II:
European Economic Integration
1. 1947  General Agreement on Tariffs
and Trade [GATT]
 23 nations.
 Became the foundation of postwar
global commerce.
 It set up procedures to handle
commercial complaints.
 It provided a framework for
continuing negotiations [“rounds”].
 By 1990, 99 nations were
European Economic Integration
2. 1952  European Coal & Steel
Community [ECSC].
 HQ in Luxembourg.
 “Inner Six”  Benelux nations,
France, Italy,
W. Germany.
 Placed their coal and steel
industries under a form of
supranational authority.
 Eliminated tariff duties and
quotas on coal and steel.
European Economic Integration
3. 1957  European Economic
Community [EEC]
 HQ  Brussels.
 Treaty of Rome.
European Economic Integration
3. 1957  European Economic
Community [EEC]
 France, W. Germany, Italy,
 Created a larger free trade area,
or customs union.
 Eliminate all trade barriers.
 One common tariff with the
outside world.
 Free movement of capital &
European Economic Integration
4. 1967  combined the ECSC &
EEC to form the
European Community
 HQ  Brussels.
 European Parliament.
 “Eurocrats.”
 518 members [elected by all
voters in Europe].
 Only limited legislative power.
 Court of Justice.
European Economic Integration
5. 1991-92  Maastricht Agreements
 European Union [EU] created from the EC.
 One currency, one culture, one social
area, and one environment!
 Create a “frontier-free” Europe  a
common EU passport.
 One large “common market.”
 Goods coming into the EU would have
high tariffs placed on them.
 2002  a common currency [Euro]
 2003  60,000 men EU rapid defense
force was created.