Chapter 06 2011 present

Download Report

Transcript Chapter 06 2011 present

Chapter Introduction
Section 1: Immigration
Section 2: Urbanization
Section 3: The Gilded Age
Section 4: Populism
Section 5: The Rise of
Europeans Flood Into America
Immigrants from Europe came to the
United States for many reasons and
entered the country through Ellis
Europeans Flood Into America (cont.)
• In the late 1890s—a period known as the
“new” immigration—more than half of all
immigrants in the United States were from
eastern and southern Europe.
• By the 1890s, immigrants made up a large
percentage of the population of major cities,
including New York, Chicago, Milwaukee,
and Detroit.
“Old” and “New” Immigrants to
the United States, 1865–1914
Europeans Flood Into America (cont.)
• Europeans emigrated to the United States
for many reasons:
− plenty of available jobs
− escape from poverty and the restrictions of
social class in Europe
− to avoid forced military service
− high food prices
“Old” and “New” Immigrants to
the United States, 1865–1914
Europeans Flood Into America (cont.)
− religious persecution
− Moving to the United States was an easy
− to live under a democratic government
“Old” and “New” Immigrants to
the United States, 1865–1914
Europeans Flood Into America (cont.)
• The voyage to the United States was often
very difficult.
− Most immigrants booked passage in
− At the end of the 14-day journey, the
passengers usually disembarked at Ellis
About how many immigrants passed
through Ellis Island between 1892
and 1954?
A. 2 million
B. 6 million
C. 12 million
D. 20 million
Nativism Resurges
Economic concerns and religious and
ethnic prejudices led some Americans
to push for laws restricting
Nativism Resurges (cont.)
• Eventually, the wave of immigration led to
increased feelings of nativism on the part of
many Americans.
• Nativists opposed immigration for many reasons:
− fear that the influx of Catholics would swamp
the mostly Protestant United States
Nativism Resurges (cont.)
• Increased feelings of nativism led to the
founding of anti-immigrant organizations
such as the American Protective Association.
• Enacted in 1882, a new federal law banned
convicts, paupers, and the mentally disabled
from immigrating to the U.S.
Separation by Class
In the cities, society was separated by
classes, with the upper, middle, and
working classes living in different
Separation by Class (cont.)
• During the last half of the 1800s, the
wealthiest families established fashionable
districts in the heart of a city.
• The nation’s rising middle class included
doctors, lawyers, engineers, managers,
social workers, architects, and teachers.
• Few families in the urban class could hope to
own a home.
− Most spent their lives in crowded tenements.
Separation by Class (cont.)
• Within the working class, white native-born
men earned higher wages than anyone else.
− Many times the entire family, including the
children, worked.
• In the cities, immigrants lived in
neighborhoods that were often separated
into ethnic groups.
Urban Problems
Major problems plagued the cities;
political machines provided help for
some residents but were frequently
Urban Problems (cont.)
• Crime, both major and minor, was a growing
problem in American cities.
− Alcohol contributed to violent crime, both
inside and outside the home.
− Disease and pollution posed even bigger
Urban Problems (cont.)
• The political machine came about partly
because cities had grown much faster than
their governments.
− In exchange for votes, political machines
and the party bosses who ran them
eagerly provided necessities.
Urban Problems (cont.)
• Tammany Hall, the New York City
Democratic political machine, was the most
infamous such organization.
− William “Boss” Tweed was its leader
during the 1860s and 1870s.
Social Darwinism
Individualism and Social Darwinism
shaped Americans’ attitudes toward
industrial society.
Social Darwinism (cont.)
• In 1872, Mark Twain and Charles Warner
wrote a novel entitled The Gilded Age: A Tale
of Today.
− By calling this era the Gilded Age, they
were warning others that something might
appear to sparkle, but the inside is
probably made of cheaper material.
• Whether the era was golden or merely
gilded, it was certainly a time of great
cultural activity.
Social Darwinism (cont.)
• One of the strongest beliefs of the era was
the idea of individualism.
− Horatio Alger wrote more than 100 “rags to
riches” stories.
• Another powerful idea was Social
− British philosopher Herbert Spencer applied
Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution and
natural selection to human society.
Social Darwinism (cont.)
• For many devout Christians, however,
Darwin’s conclusions were upsetting and
• Andrew Carnegie advocated a gentler
version of Social Darwinism that he called
the Gospel of Wealth.
− This philosophy held that wealthy Americans
should engage in philanthropy and use their
great fortunes to create conditions that would
help people help themselves.
The Rebirth of Reform (cont.)
• The plight of the urban poor prompted some
reformers to find new ways to help.
− Their efforts gave rise to the Social
Gospel movement, the Salvation Army,
the YMCA, and settlement houses.
• Jane Addams opened a famous settlement
house in Chicago—the Hull House—in 1889.
Effects of Industrialization
1. Immigration and Urbanization
• Rise of large factories greatly
increases the demand for labor in
the United States, encouraging
immigrants to move to America in
large numbers.
• The increase in industrial jobs encourages large
numbers of Americans and immigrants to settle in
• As cities grow large, pollution, crime, disease, and fire
become serious problems.
Effects of Industrialization
1. Immigration and Urbanization
• New industrial technology allows
cities to grow even larger with the
development of the skyscraper, the
elevator, and the trolley car.
• Large urban areas change the nature of politics
creating corrupt urban political “machines” such as
Tammany Hall in New York.
Effects of Industrialization
3. Changes in Culture
• Industrial society initially
leads to a strong belief in
individualism; Social
Darwinism emerges as the
idea that government should
not interfere in society.
• Ongoing social problems caused by industrialization
lead to Reform Darwinism and the emergence of
reformers who want to use government to help solve
society’s problems and regulate the economy.
Effects of Industrialization
3. Changes in Culture
• New forms of realist and
naturalist art and literature
depict industrial life in
serious and realistic ways.
cramped quarters on a ship’s lower
decks for passengers paying the
lowest fares
hostility toward immigrants
one who enters and becomes
established in a country other than
that of their original nationality
relating to large groups of people
classed according to common racial,
national, tribal, religious, linguistic, or
cultural origin or background
multifamily apartments, usually dark,
crowded, and barely meeting
minimum living standards
political machine
an organization linked to a political
party that often controlled local
party boss
the person in control of a political
the acquisition of money in dishonest
ways, as in bribing a politician
the thought that no matter what a
person’s background was, they could
still become successful
Social Darwinism
based on Charles Darwin’s theories
of evolution and natural selection,
states that humans have developed
through competition and natural
selection with only the strongest
providing money to support
humanitarian or social goals
settlement house
institution located in a poor
neighborhood that provided
numerous community services such
as medical care, child care, libraries,
and classes in English
causing someone to acquire
American traits and characteristics
This slide is intentionally blank.