Immigration & Urbanization

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Transcript Immigration & Urbanization

 By the late 1800s, most European states made it easy to
move to America. By the 1890s, eastern and southern
Europeans made up more than half of all immigrants.
Of the 14 million immigrants who arrived between
1860 and 1900, many were European Jews.
 Why?
 employment
 few immigration restrictions
 avoidance of military service
 religious freedom
 chance to move up the social ladder.
Ellis Island
 served as a processing
center for most
immigrants arriving on
the East coast after 1892.
Angel Island
 Asian immigrants,
mostly young men and
boys, waited sometimes
for months for the
results of immigration
 Look back at your notes and answer the following
 What helped immigrants adjust to living in the United
 Immigrants tended to adjust well to living in the United
States if they quickly learned English and adapted to the
American culture.
 Skilled immigrants, those who had money, or those who
lived among their own ethnic group also tended to adjust
more successfully.
 Increase in immigration leads to rise in Nativism
 Earlier, in the 1840s and 1850s
 nativism was directed towards the Irish.
 In the early 1900s,
 it was the Asian, Jews, and eastern Europeans that were
the focus of nativism.
American Protection
 500,000 members by
 Founded by Henry
 Against catholic
Workingman’s Party of
 Created by Irish
immigrant Denis Kearny
 Wanted to stop Chinese
 Passed in 1882
 barred Chinese immigration for 10 years
 prevented the Chinese already in America from
becoming citizens.
 The urban population of the United States grew from
about 10 million in 1870 to over 30 million by 1900.
 Immigrants moving into cities
 Farmers moving back into urban areas for better
quality of life
Chicago, IL
William Le Baron
10 stories
St. Louis, MO
Louis Sullivan “father
of skyscrapers”
10 stories
Steel framed
 Look back at your notes and answer the following
 What were some differences between the social
 The social classes differed in their level of income and the
area in which they lived.
 The wealthy lived in the heart of the city in elaborate
homes. The middle class lived away from the central city
and used commuter lines to get to work.
 The working class lived in cities in tenements.
 The growth of cities resulted in an increase in crime,
fire, disease, and pollution. From 1880 to 1900, there
was a large increase in the murder rate.
 Native-born Americans blamed immigrants for the
increase in crime.
 Alcohol contributed to crime in the late 1800s.
 Contaminated drinking water from improper sewage
disposal resulted in epidemics of typhoid fever and
 A new political system was needed to cope with the
new urban problems. The political machine, an
informal political group designed to gain and keep
power, provided essentials to city dwellers in exchange
for votes.
 Party bosses ran the political machines. George
Plunket, an Irish immigrant, was one of New York
City’s most powerful party bosses.
 The party bosses had tight control of the city’s money.
Many of the politicians became wealthy due to fraud or
graft—getting money through dishonest or
questionable means.
 Tammany Hall
 One of the most
powerful political
machines in New York
 William “Boss” Tweed
 Although corrupt, political machines did supply
important services and help assimilate the everexpanding population of city dwellers.